Pamunkey River

Pamunkey River
The Pamunkey River in 1864

Sunday, December 27, 2020

Twelve Days of Christmas in Colonial Virginia

From,  "Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century," By David DeSimone in The Colonial Williamsburg Interpreter, vol. 16, no. 4, winter 1995-96.

            "How long was the Christmas season? 

The holiday, or more accurately the holy days of Christmas/Epiphany, fall into a forty- day cycle. This cycle was (and still is) a commemoration of the infancy narratives found in the Gospels of Saint Luke and Saint Matthew. Four major events involving Jesus, Mary, and Joseph are commemorated in the forty-day cycle. They are:

December 25: The Nativity of Jesus

January 1: The Circumcision of Jesus (Eight Days after Christmas)

January 6: The Epiphany of Jesus (Twelve Days after Christmas)

February 2: The Purification of the Virgin (Forty Days after Christmas)*

Some of the most sacred holy days are observed within the octave of Christmas. The octave week (an eight-day observance) began on Christmas Day and included December 26-- Saint Stephens Day; December 27--Saint John the Evangelists Day; and December 28--Holy Innocents Day. The octave week festival ended with the Feast of the Circumcision on January 1. It cannot be emphasized enough that amid the joy of the season, the holy days of Saint Stephen and the Holy Innocents were a solemn reminder of the darker side of humanity. In fact, Saint Stephen and the Holy Innocents were martyred because of Christs coming. 

 . . . 

While the observance of these sacred days was over, it did not signal the end of the liturgical season of Christmas. Eight days after Christmas, January 1, was the celebration of the Circumcision of Christ. Twelve days after Christmas was the Feast of the Epiphany, or the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles. Finally, forty days after Christmas was the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin Mary."

*Also know as Candlemass and celebrated in a popular sense in the United States as Groundhog Day.


Tuesday, November 3, 2020

New Kent Votes - Presidential Votes 1788-2020 - UPDATED

 1788, 1792- George Washington ran without opposition

1796-ADAMS (F) [elector Mayo 57- elector Griffin 23]- JEFFERSON (DR) 60

1800-JEFFERSON (DR) 105- ADAMS (F) 87

1804-JEFFERSON (DR) 47-

1808-MADISON (DR) 60- MONROE 52

1812-MADISON (DR) 64- KING (F) 55

1816-MONROE (DR) 26-

1820- James MONROE faced no opposition in 1820


1828-JACKSON (D) 96- ADAMS (NR) 77

1832-JACKSON (D) 71- CLAY (W) 33

1836-WHITE (W) 108- VAN BUREN (D) 57 

1840-HARRISON (W) 198- VAN BUREN (D) 156

1844-CLAY (W) 198- POLK (D) 177-

1848-TAYOR (W) 176- CASS (D) 101

1852-SCOTT (W) 174- PIERCE (D) 148-

1856-BUCHANAN (D) 193- FILLMORE (NA) 169


1864- Part of the Confederate States of America

1868-  Virginia not readmitted to the Union until 1870

1872-GRANT (R) 474- GREELEY (D) 362

1876-GRANT (R) 540- TILDEN (D) 470

1880-HANCOCK (D) 107 [+324 READJUSTER]¹   GARFIELD (R) 361

1884-BLAINE (R) 691- CLEVELAND (D) 440

1888-HARRISON (R) 689- CLEVELAND (D) 375


1896-MCKINLEY (R) 446- BRYAN (D) 369-

1900-MCKINLEY (R) 447- BRYAN (D) 282-

1904-PARKER (D) 127- ROOSEVELT (R)  75

1908-BRYAN (D) 193- TAFT (R) 159- DEBS (SOC) 2

1912-WILSON (D) 136-  ROOSEVELT (PRO) 32-  TAFT (R) 15

1916-WILSON (D) 192- HUGHES (R)  69

1920-COX (D) 190- HARDING (R) 109

1924-DAVIS (D) 178-  COOLIDGE(R) 86- LAFOLLETTE (PRO) 15

1928-HOOVER (R) 217- SMITH (D) 178


1936-ROOSEVELT (D) 307- LANDON (R) 120

1940-ROOSEVELT (D) 286- WILKIE (R)  133

1944-ROOSEVELT (D) 329- DEWEY (R) 158

1948-TRUMAN (D) 277- DEWEY (R) 140- THURMOND (SR) 92- WALLACE (PROG) 1-                          THOMAS (SOC) 3

1952-EISENHOWER (R) 455- STEVENSON (D) 400- HASS (SL) 5- HOOPES (SOC) 1-                              HALLINAN (PROG) 1

1956-EISENHOWER (R) 510- STEVENSON (D) 178- ANDREWS (SR) 189- HASS (SL) 3

1960-NIXON (R) 526- KENNEDY (D) 481- COINER ²(CON)² 10- HASS (SL) 1

1964-JOHNSON (D) 684- GOLDWATER (R) 677- HASS (SL) 4

1968-HUMPHREY (D) 765- NIXON (R) 526- WALLACE (AI) 609- BLOMEN (SL) 1-
         GREGORY (PF) 1- MUNN (PROB) 2

1972-NIXON (R) 1370- MCGOVERN (D) 633- SHMITZ (AI) 19- FISCHER (SL) 7

1976-CARTER (D) 1338- FORD (R) 1259- CAMEJO (SW) 9- ANDERSON (AM) 14-
          LAROUCHE (USL) 17- MACBRIDE (LIB) 7

1980-REAGAN (R) 1739- CARTER (D) 1204- ANDERSON (I) 68- COMMONER  9- 
         CLARK   5

1984-REAGAN (R) 2679- MONDALE (D) 1204- LAROUCHE (I) 16

1988-BUSH (R) 2917- DUKAKIS (D) 1427- FULANI (I) 20- PAUL (LIB) 20

1992-BUSH (R) 2708- CLINTON (D) 1738- PEROT (REF) 1017

1996-DOLE (R) 2852- CLINTON (D) 1859- PEROT (REF)  520

2000-BUSH (R) 3934- GORE (D) 2055- NADER (G) 81- BUCHANAN (REF) 11-
         BROWNE (LIB)     20

2004-BUSH (R) 5414- KERRY (D) 2443-  BADNARIK (LIB) 42- PEROUTKA (CONS) 41

2008-MCCAIN (R) 6385- OBAMA (D) 3493- NADER (I) 36- BARR (LIB) 28-
         BALDWIN (CONS) 19-  MCKINNEY (G) 16

2012-ROMNEY (R) 7246- OBAMA (D) 3555-  JOHNSON (LIB) 82 - GOODE (CONS) 34-
         STEIN (G) 24

2016- TRUMP (R)  8118- CLINTON (D) 3546- JOHNSON (LIB) 348- STEIN (G)  52-                                 MCMULLIN (I) 102

2020- TRUMP (R) 9,631 -BIDEN (D)  4,621 -JORGENSEN (LIB) 172

AI- American Independent Party
AM- American Party
CON- Conservative Party of Virginia¹
CONS- Constitution Party
CON-U- Constitutional Union Party
D- Democratic Party
DR- Democratic Republican
F- Federalist Party
G- Green Party
LIB- Libertarian Party
NA- Native American Party
N-DEM- Northern Democrats
NR- National Republican Party
PF- Peace and Freedom Party 
POP- Populist Party
PR- Progressive Party (1912)
PRO- Progressive Party (1924)
PROB- Prohibition Party
PROG- Progressive Party (1948-52)
R- Republican Party
REF- Reform Party
S-DEM- Southern Democrats
SR- State's Rights Party
SRD- State's Rights Democrats
SL- Socialist Labor Party
SOC- Socialist
USL- U.S. Labor
W- Whig Party

¹ - The Readjuster Party was a Virginia political movement of the 1880's. In 1880 they nominated their own slate of Presidential electors to support Democratic candidate Winfield Scott Hancock.

² - The Conservative Party of Virginia was a conservative third party splinter group that hoped to draft Sen. Harry F. Bird.

All election returns are from the author's personal research over the years.

Thursday, October 29, 2020

The Gallows, Resurrection Men . . . and Dancing

A special Halloween reposting from 2 years ago. For the background of this piece start here.


"The negroes came in immense numbers. It was a gala day for them, and they were all in a holiday attire. The field in which the men were hanged looked like a country fair. Booths were erected. An enterprising Yankee had a side show and educated pig, and itinerant musicians enlivened the occasion. After the hanging the crowds of whites went away, but the negroes hung about the field and around the shallow graves of the felons until dark. They had determined to have a ball, but according to some superstition among them it could not begin until after the midnight hour. A large barn in the field was swept clean by hundreds of willing hands. At 12 o'clock it was crowded. 
On a small stage in a corner the stand for the musicians was placed, which was occupied by four banjo players and one fiddle. In the middle of the room was another stand, upon which the man who called out the figures stood. It was a weird scene. Boys stood in the corners of the room with pine knot torches, which filled the place with smoke, and made a murky light.
At 12:15 the festivities began. Peter Johnson, a burly tobacco hand, occupied the stand in the middle of the room, and sang out in stentorian voice: "Choose your partners." The strangely made up orchestra struck up "The Mississippi Sawyer," a wild Ethiopian air, and the dancing began. As the music went on, the musicians and dances grew wild and wilder, until they shouted and sang as though possessed by the devil. Such exclamations as "I could die dis moment" "Oh, Lord, how happy I is" and the like were heard, especially from the women. At about two o'clock Lucinda Macon, an old voudou(sic) negress, suddenly made her appearance in the barn. The musicians and dancers stopped in terror. The old hag slipped into the middle of the room, and then began a series of strange incantation scenes. The "trick" doctress* was dressed in an old blue and white checkered dress, and had in. her hand a large bundle, tied up in a red handkerchief. She opened it, and after muttering a lot of gibberish, in what the negroes say here was an African dialect, she said she had the rope with which the man were banged, and that after she had touched any bit of it that piece would secure the possessor against the evil designs of any person who tricked them or poisoned them. She cut it up in small bits, and over each bit she muttered and sprinkled something from an old jog, and then she sold it for fifty cents. The rush for these pieces of rope was great. The men fought for them.
This ceremony was kept up until 2:30 a.m. The rope did not go around, and when this became known those who did not get a piece acted like fiends, and begged the hag for a thread only. She told them that nothing else would effect the charm except small particles of the clothing in which the men were buried. A large party then started off to. the grave underneath the gallows, for the purpose of disinterring the bodies and bringing back the garments. They soon returned in horror to the ball room, swearing that they had seen the two men who were hanged walking around the grave. The hag added to the excitement by declaring at the top of her voice, singing cut the words, that Smith and Christian had not died, because she had given them a charm. The secret is, that the visit of the dancers to the grave frightened off two resurrectionists who were after the bodies for the doctors. The dancing and singing were kept up until 5 o'clock. It was announced by the voudou doctress that all who danced at the gallows ball would be able to dance as long as they lived, no matter if they lived to be ninety one"

-Shepherdstown Register (West Virginia), April 05, 1879

* hoodoo man or conjurer

For more information on the believed magical properties of the accoutrements of the gallows I suggest,  Executing Magic in the Modern Era: Criminal Bodies and the Gallows in Popular Medicine by Owen Davies and Francesca Matteoni. As for the carnival nature of the public execution, there is the book The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People 1770-1868 by V. A. C. Gatrell and "The Execution Spectacle and State Legitimacy: The Changing Nature of the American Execution Audience, 1833-1937" by Annulla Linders in Law & Society Review.

Thursday, October 15, 2020

Educational Connections- Roxbury 1860


I will open this school at my mother’s (Mrs. C.N. Pollard) residence, on the 1st of September, 1860, for the limited number of 12 boys. 

Boys of this school will enjoy all the advantages of a private family and will receive the same attention as at home The course of instruction will embrace all the English, Classical and Mathematical branches. 

Terms— $200 including everything. For further particulars see circular which can be obtained by addressing Thos. E. Ballard, Exchange Hotel, Richmond, or myself at Hubbard’s P.O.. New Kent county. 

                        THOS A POLLARD, A.M.                  

References.— C. Martin, Prof. Ancient Languages, H.S. College; M. D. Hoge, D.D., Richmond; B.B. Douglas, King William; Wm. B. Newton, Hanover; John P. Pierce*, New Kent, Hugh Nelson. Petersburg; T. Taylor, New Kent. 


-Richmond Whig, August 22, 1860

The Mrs. C. N. Pollard mentioned would be Caroline Nelson Pollard, widow of James Camm Pollard, owner of Warsaw plantation in Roxbury. She was also the mother of James Pollard, later Lieutenant of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry, mentioned here.

It seem then that the young man here is Thomas Atkinson Pollard  (Feb 17, 1836-Oct 16 1884) and so twenty four in 1860.  A graduate of Hampden-Sydney, Pollard later rose to the position of principal in the Richmond Public Schools. He was the first principal of the historic Springfield School on Church Hill.

Thomas A. Pollard's obituary from October 17, 1884 edition of the Richmond Dispatch.

Death of T. A. Pollard

Mr. Thomas A. Pollard, principal of Springfield and East-End public schools, died yesterday morning at 10 o'clock. In the forty-seventh year of his age, Mr. Pollard had bean sick since last Sunday week: and though his case was severe it was hoped, until within a day of his death, that he would recover, As a man he was amiable, modest, and true; as a Christian, earnest, conscientious and deeply pious; as a school officer, faithful, popular, and efficient.

He was greatly endeared to those who were brought into intimate contact with him, whether socially or officially. Mr. Pollard was the youngest son of the late John Camm Pollard, of King William county. After his father's death be removed to Henrico county, near the new reservoir, and subsequently to the place now occupied by John C. Shafer. Esq. He was in this city, and attended the schools of Rev. Alexander Martin and Dr. Socrates Maupin.  Later he was a student at Hampden-Sydney College, at which institution he graduated. His life has been spent in teaching in South Carolina, Mississippi, and Virginia.

For the past five years he has been engaged in the public schools of this city. During the war he was in the Confederate army in the Valley of Virginia. Mr. Pollard was twice married. His first wife was a Miss Christian of New Kent. His second wife a Miss Lipscomb, daughter of N. C. Lipscomb of this city, survives him. He leaves three children. The funeral will take place to-day at 3 o'clock P. M. from Dr. Hoge's church, of which he had been a number since early manhood.

The exercises of Springfield and East-End Schools will be suspended to-day, and the other schools will close at 1:30 P.M. The School Board will attend the funeral in a body

* New Kent's Commonwealth Attorney

UPDATE: "Roxbury" was approximately 500 acres bounded on the north by Rt. 60(now), on the south by the Chickahominy, the west by "South Garden" and the east by Schiminoe Creek.

Monday, September 28, 2020

The 10th Massachusetts from Williamsburg to Bottoms Bridge II

FRIDAY, May 16. Our Regiment on picket until nine o'clock this morning, when we were withdrawn, and placed on the Chickahominy Creek road, to protect the road, and get rested at the same time. The remainder of the division passed on towards Richmond. At four o'clock again on the tramp, and moved four miles nearer Richmond, to a place called Baltimore Cross Roads. Passed large strawberry fields. The rebs keep just about so far in advance of us, or we keep so far behind them, we haven't found out which. Our cavalry stirred up their rear guard, this after noon, about five miles from here. 

SATURDAY, May 17. Moved forward about two miles, to Crump's Cross Roads. The dirtiest camp-ground yet. Cobb's Georgia Legion had occupied, only a day or two before, and the place of their sojourn was plainly visible. 

SUNDAY, May 18. In camp all day. This has been to the tired soldier indeed a day of rest; nothing to do but clean up guns and equipments. At evening, dress parade, and prayer by the chaplain of the First Chasseurs. Our chaplain having resigned soon after we took the field, we have to borrow prayers from our comrades of other regiments. 

It has been stated, how the companies at Brightwood drew pay in cash, from government, for rations which they had not received, which money was turned over to the company fund. One day, a Company A man called at the colonel's tent, and with hat off, and saluting respectfully, inquired if the soldiers could not draw from government a company savings, for prayers not received by the Regiment, from the chaplain. He thought it would make quite a little sum. The colonel's answer is not quoted. 

MONDAY, May 19. Moved again three miles, to the line of the railroad from West Point to Richmond, and about sixteen miles from the latter city. Raining in the morning, but clearing off before night. Close up to the enemy's picket, and encamped in a fine grove. 

TUESDAY, May 20. Inspection and light battalion drill, this afternoon, at four o clock. 

WEDNESDAY, May 21. Two miles nearer Richmond, having moved camp this morning. Bivouacked in a clover field. Just before dark, Company B, Captain Smart, and Company I, Captain Newell, were detailed for outpost duty, to relieve Captain Bliss of the Seventh Massachusetts. Nearly dark when the detachment started to cross the rail road bridge, over the Chickahominy. About forty feet, the portion spanning the channel of the creek, had been burned by the enemy, and our men crossed the channel on planks, laid upon the trestle work; waded the Chickahominy swamp knee deep, lay down on the bank and watched for daylight and the enemy. 

THURSDAY, May 22. At early dawn, the enemy's cavalry picket were discovered, and driven off by our rifles. By noon, the picket line had been straightened, and advanced half a mile, from the end of the bridge, with the head-quarters at what was called the Pryor house, now deserted. Started the enemy from the nearest house on our right, and captured a contraband, who gave us a graphic history of the neighborhood and people. The women and children, all colored, had been left to look after the affairs of the house, while the proprietors had taken their families, and skedaddled for Richmond. The servants returned in the afternoon, having been driven away by our firing. Put on a picket at the house, which was filled with furniture, clothing and provisions, just as the family left it. The next morning, one of the soldiers on guard at the house, was seen to dip his coffee from his haversack, with a bright silver table-spoon. Upon being requested to name where the aforesaid article of domestic use was obtained, stated that he found it in the house, and there being nobody at home, he had taken it to save it. It was found, upon inquiring, that most of the other men, who had occasion to go to the house, had also saved a spoon. On the opposite side of the railroad, and to our left, was another farm-house, which inventoried three old maids, two negro men, two colored women, five cats, four dogs, and one cow, all scared and with their backs up. They were very much frightened, when they found their visitors were "youuns," instead of " weuns," but they were assured of ample protection. Yet they were not happy. One of the old ladies stood up in one corner of the room, as tall and stiff as a rail, puffing away at an old clay pipe, as if her very existence depended on it. At the next house lived a miller, with his wife and half a dozen children. Being a miller, he was exempt, at that time, from the rebel conscription. A guard was stationed at his house, to make sure that no information was given from it, to the enemy. At the miller s house, found an official document from the rebel head-quarters, directed to "The first union officer who arrives," and within was an envelope directed to Adjutant General Williams, of our army. It was unsealed, and related to a flag of truce. At night, exchanged occasional shots with the enemy, who were on the railroad, just out of good rifle range. 

FRIDAY, May 23. The Regiment crossed Bottom's bridge, and the picket companies were called in about four o'clock. The Fiftieth New York Regiment of engineers, were busy repairing the railroad bridge across the Chickahominy. 

- ' "Ours" of 10th Massachusetts Volunteers, in the Rebellion.' 

Edited By Captain Joseph Keith Newell, Historian of the Regiment, Published by C. A. Nichols & Co., Springfield, Mass. 1875- 

The 10th saw heavy losses over the next month- from the history of the regiment

Fair Oaks
Colonel Briggs being badly wounded, and the command devolving upon Captain Miller, the senior officer present. The latter handled the regiment with great ability and gallantry, holding the enemy in check till darkness and the coming of reinforcements saved the Union line from further disruption. The loss of the Tenth was heavy, being 27 killed and 95 wounded, six fatally. Among the killed were Captains Smart and Day and Lieutenant Leland. General Devens, commanding the brigade, was also severely wounded, and was temporarily succeeded by General Palmer

Malvern Hill
Of the 400 taken into action, 10 were killed 
and over 70 wounded. Major Miller was shot through the neck


Sunday, September 13, 2020

The 10th Massachusetts from Williamsburg to Bottoms Bridge I

Capts of the 10th Mass.- Newell is bottom center

An account of the 10th Massachusetts in New Kent during the Peninsula Campaign of 1862. The regiment was part of the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the Fourth Corps. The regiment consisted of men from western Massachusetts and the Connecticut Valley of that state. The regimental history was edited by Joseph Keith Newell, the 24 year old captain of Company I.


THURSDAY, May 8. In camp near Williamsburg. Several officers of the Regiment were permitted to take a stroll through the town. Visited the William and Mary College, which was used as a hospital for the wounded. It was mostly filled with rebels, they having been carried there during the engagement. The ladies of Williamsburg were present in large numbers, tenderly caring for their wounded soldiers. 


FRIDAY, May 9. At half-past six this morning started again; marched as far as James City. We took a long roundabout way, and after marching ten miles, were only three miles from Williamsburg. 


SATURDAY, May 10. Marched as far as Barhamsville, and encamped upon the edge of a beautiful grove, the Seventh Massachusetts on our right, and the Fifty-fifth New York in the rear of us. Reached this camp about three o'clock in the afternoon. By shiftlessness in our quarter master s department, our baggage train is not up. While the officers of every other regiment in sight are luxuriating in clean changes of clothing, we are waiting for our baggage as usual. 


SUNDAY, May 11. In camp at Barhamsville. Dress parade at five o clock, by all the regiments. This drew, as visitors, quite a crowd of first-families, and some that were not first. One couple footed it five miles to see the soldiers. They hadn't seen any of "youuns" before. The woman said she never before saw the American flag, and we didn't doubt her word. 


MONDAY, May 12 Still in camp at Barhamsville. Dress parade at five o clock. 


TUESDAY, May 13. Broke camp at seven o clock, taking the direct telegraph road to Richmond. Marched until midnight, reaching New Kent Court-house, a distance of only ten miles from where we started. The long line of baggage train impeded our march, and we could move but a short distance at a time. Halted for the night much fatigued. Bivouacked on a sand-bank. 


WEDNESDAY, May 14. Whole Regiment detailed for picket; rained all night; the men soaked through and through. 


THURSDAY, May 15. Still raining hard; the whole Regiment on picket all day and all night. A cavalry picket, from the Eighth Pennsylvania, are attempting vidette duty in our front, but during the night, they were all the time coming in with cock-and-bull stories of whole squadrons of the enemy just ready to charge, and managed to keep us up and in line, all night. In the morning, found out that one company had been scared all night by another company of the same regiment. 

The able-bodied men of this region are all in the rebel army; we see some of their maimed and crippled, who have been discharged from the confederate service, and have returned to their homes. They have but little to say, and answer but few questions. 

All the houses we pass have little white flags of truce hanging out of the windows, or stuck up in the door-yard. Flags of mercy, the boys call them, and the property so marked, is generally protected and respected. At James City, we protected a poor lone widow, saved her fences for her, and allowed no one to molest her. Next morning, found out that her husband was in the rebel army, and she was secesh through and through. 

 - ' "Ours" of 10th Massachusetts Volunteers, in the Rebellion.' 

Edited By: Captain Joseph Keith Newell, Historian of the Regiment,
Published by C. A. Nichols & Co., Springfield, Mass. 1875- 

Sunday, September 6, 2020

Frightful Degree - Death of an Old Soldier 1825

Richmond, Nov. 20.— We understand that Mr John Brown, a venerable old man, one of the door-keepers of the House of Delegates, for a great many years, was killed on Saturday last by an unfortunate son, who is said to be deranged. What particular provocation could have induced him to attack the life of his father, we have not understood; but he first shot his father, and not haying dispatched him in this manner, he struck him with an axe, separated -the head from the trunk, and horrible to tell! cut and mangled the head of his victim in a frightful degree. Another of his brothers hearing of the murder, came up with a gun; and the wretch attempting to escape, he shot at him, only one small shot striking him on the cheek. The calamity does not terminate here. For, the destroyer of his father, being thus wounded, fired in his turn at his brother, and lodged the contents of the gun in .his thigh. The life of the brother too is said to be in jeopardy Some negroes who were by, no longer fearing bis gun, came up and seized him he was committed to New Kent jail on Sunday morning.  [Compiler.

-Phenix Gazette (Alexandria), 3 December 1825

Thousands in the Commonwealth are acquainted with John Brown, an old Revolutionary Soldier, who has served so many years aid so faithfully as Door-keeper to the House of Delegates. The unfortunate man has fallen by the hands of his own son. On Saturday last, the son shot the father; but as the old man did not fall dead, the son seized an axe struck him on the head, perhaps nearly separated it from the body, and mangled it in a most distressing manner. Another of the sons hearing of the terrible catastrophe, approached his brother with a gun, who immediately attempted to fly; but the irritated son shot at him, and merely grazed him on the cheek with one partridge shot. The parricide then stopt, and returned the fire, which unfortunately took effect on the body of his brother, whose life is despaired of; some negroes, who had been prevented from interfering by the fear of his gun, then stept up and arrested the murderer. On Saturday morning, he was committed to the jail of New Kent County. Our informant states that the unfortunate Parricide is supposed to have been for some time deranged.

-Richmond Enquirer, 29 November 1825

John Brown
John Brown, 2nd (File No. S. 39,319; certificate no. 4732). May 15, 1818, when he was 55 year of age John Brown, 2nd, of New Kent County, Va., made affidavit in open court that he enlisted in James City Co., Va., in May 1778 as a private in Colo. Porterfield's regt*., and served to the end of the war. He was in the battle when Gates was defeated, and received his discharge at Little York, Va. 
The signatures of the presiding judges of New Kent County Court appear on this paper and are: Robert Warren, Robert Graves, Seaton W. Crump, Wm. Douglas and Beverly Crump. Bartholomew Dandridge signed as Clerk of Ct. 
The pension of $8 per month was granted Oct. 21, 1818 commencing May 15, 1818. This was dropped Nov. 26, 1819 upon information that Colo. Porterfield's was a State Regt. and not Continental.

* I assume this to be the Virginia State Garrison Regiment, meant to guard various sites along the coast of Virginia. It was sent south and was decimated at the American defeat at Camden.