The County Election by George Caleb Bingham

The County Election by George Caleb Bingham
Until after the Civil War elections in Virginia were "viva voce," i.e. by voice vo/ The County Election- George Caleb Bingham

Monday, November 16, 2015

Rev. Isaac Oliver Sloan

 More particulars from the varied life of the Rev. Isaac Oliver Sloan.

Isaac Oliver Sloan (XIX 69) was graduated at Washington and Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; studied theology at Union Theological seminary, New York; received license to preach from the Fourth Presbytery of Philadelphia, and was ordained in 1856 by the Presbytery of Hanover, Virginia. He was a missionary in Kent county, Virginia, for four years. His first pastoral charge was at Talleysville, Accomac(!!!) county, Virginia, where he remained till the outbreak of the Civil war. He was twice commissioned by President Lincoln as chaplain of the field hospitals within the lines of the army of the Potomac, and afterward by President Johnson chaplain of the officers' hospital in the Naval Buildings, Annapolis, Maryland. After the close of the war he went west, and spent the rest of his active life in Minnesota, where he reared two churches, and in North Dakota, where he founded three churches.

-Record of the Harris family descended from John Harris, born in 1680 in Wiltshire, England
by Harris, Joseph Smith

Besides the prominent chaplaincies the Rev. Sloan did yeoman service as a member of the United States Christian Commission during the the Civil War. Here is a mention of his work after the Battle of Gettysburg from a contemporary report . . .

After a pretty thorough examination of the work of the Commission at the General Hospital, the members of the Committee proceeded to the hospital, located at the Lutheran Theological Seminary. Here the work was found to be in excellent progress, under the charge of the Rev. I.O. Sloan, one of the most faithful and efficient of our delegates. Mr. Sloan was with Mr. Cross and others, among the first on the ground. They were sent with a full supply of stores to Westminster, before anything could be done at Gettysburg. Immediately after the battle, they were on the ground and at work. He has continued in the faithful performance of duty ever since and it was with great pleasure that the order with which he was pursuing his way, at the Seminary Hospital, was witnessed. The surgeons spoke of him in the kindest and most affectionate manner, and wrought with him very pleasantly in the performance of their mutual labors.
 -United States Christian Commission. Committee of Maryland. Report, Volume 2
J. Young, 1864

His work on the Great Plains after the war . .

Bismarck.-On Sunday November 5, memorial services were held in the Presbyterian church for the Rev. Isaac Oliver Sloan the organizer of the church. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 20, 1820, and died at his residence, 3118 North Sixteenth street, Philadelphia, October 27, 1899. He was honorably retired by the Presbytery of Bismarck, October 27, 1895, and spent the last four years of his life with his relatives. "Father" Sloan as he was familiarly called was emphatically a pioneer. He was the first Presbyterian minister in the state of North Dakota, and the church at Bismarck which he organized was the second in the territory of Dakota- afterwards formed into the states of North and South Dakota. He was stated supply at Bismarck from August 28, 1873, until September 21, 1878. But he was at work on the Missouri slope and further until his honorable retirement. He went as far west as Glendive, Montana; far north as Washburn, North Dakota, and beyond; as far south as Glencoe and Emmons county; as far east as the dividing line the James river and the Missouri river. He was a gentleman in every sense; neat, refined, loving, peaceful, never very strong. He was the Apostle of Love in the territory of Dakota. The value of such a man in the pioneer days can never be estimated. At the memorial the church was filled, and many who not entered a church door for years, heard from the Rev. Durrie the familiar and simple story of the good old man; and memory as well as heart was stirred. As a little token of appreciation to the Board of Ministerial Relief, which has deservedly helped him, $11 was raised.

-The Interior
Western Presbyterian Publishing Company, Chicago
November 30, 1899

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Who Was Chaplain Sloan?

From my article of the 9th of November . . .

 "After he had satisfied himself, he asked me if I was not a chaplain. I replied that I was. 
"I thought so," said he. "Do you know Chaplain Sloan?"
I told him I did not. (I subsequently saw Mr. Sloan at Harrison's Landing.)
"Mr. Sloan," said he,"once preached for us at New Kent; we thought a great deal of him. My mother and myself and wife were members of his church. These young men said he were all students in the classical school he superintended at New Kent. He was a very valuable and useful man amongst us. At the commencement of the war he left us and went, as we understood, to Philadelphia. But we afterwards heard that he had become a chaplain in your army, and we all took a solemn vow that wherever we should meet him we would shoot him; and when we first saw you we supposed that you were Mr Sloan, and you may have observed the young men cocking their guns; this was when we took you for him. And now," said he, "I am very glad that you are not Mr. Sloan, for it would have troubled me all my life to have shot him." I told him my pleasure at not being Mr. Sloan was fully equal to his in not finding him."
So who was the mysterious chaplain named Sloan who elicited such emotions? A little digging has revealed some interesting details about the man who I discovered to be the first pastor of Olivet Presbyterian Church. The below account is that of Dr. S. P. Christian an Elder of the church.

"Rev. Isaac Oliver Sloan was called as the first pastor. He was a native of Philadelphia, but had preached at several points in Virginia before this time. Though his father and his family belonged to old Dr. Barnes' church, who was a radical anti-slavery man, they never sympathized with him on that subject. They took the Christian Observer, and were warm supporters of Dr. Converse, the editor of that paper. It was through his recommendation that he became the pastor of Olivet.
During the four years of his ministry the church, though it did not experience any marked seasons of revival, was in a healthy, couraging(??). The membership had increased from eight to thirty-five.
In addition to the regular Sunday school, there was a very interesting Bible class for adults, which met every Saturday evening. On Sunday afternoons there were services for colored people, and these meetings were also well attended. It might have been supposed that a race of the emotional nature they possessed, and accustomed as they often were in their worship to violent bodily-exercises, jumping and shouting, would not be satisfied with our quiet Presbyterian forms, but I remember that only on one occasion about the close of the service a blind boy came up to me and said, "Doctor, may we sing shouts?"
Mr. Sloan was a member of my family the whole of the four years that he was pastor at Olivet, and I never remember that there ever was a ripple of disagreement between us about the operations of the church, but when he saw that the Civil War was coming on he said that his father and mother were very old, and not liking to be separated from them for an indefinite time, he thought it best to return home. Just after the John Brown raid, which occurred just about a year before the war, one of his brothers wrote to him to know if he, like the rest of the Virginians, was scared to death. I told him to let his brother know that the Virginian he lived with slept with his outer door unlocked every night, and would like to know whether he did the same in Philadelphia."

-Minutes of East Hanover Presbytery
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Presbytery of East Hanover
Volume 1931:Jan./June

Next- Rev. Isaac Oliver Sloan in War and Peace

Monday, November 9, 2015

The Chaplain and the Captain

The Rev. James Junius Marks, D.D.(1809-1899) was a chaplain in the Union Army from August 1861 until resigning because of ill health just before Christmas 1862.* He served first with the 12th Pennsylvania, and then in the field with the 63rd Pennsylvania during the Peninsula Campaign. The below is from his 1864 account of his Peninsula experiences.
During the afternoon we were at work removing the stores of provisions from the railroad track to the hospital. I had all the nurses engaged in bearing these across the fields on their backs and on stretchers, and in various ways we were securing what had been spared for us.
During one of these trips we observed a company of horsemen riding swiftly towards us. When they approached within fifty yards of us, I saw the young men around the captain throw the strap of their carbines over their shoulders placing their guns over the pommel of their saddles cock them and moving slowly they drew near. I thought the action was strange and threatening and commanded the men to drop their loads and sit down on the grass. I advanced in front. When the captain came within ten paces of us, I saw him turn and wave his hand to his followers. They uncocked their pieces, threw the strap over the neck, and came up to us.
The leader bowed and introduced himself as Captain Taylor, of New Kent, and the commander of a company in the celebrated Stuart cavalry. He was much of a gentleman, asked me when we were taken prisoners? how we were treated? how many sick we had? After he had satisfied himself, he asked me if I was not a chaplain. I replied that I was. 
"I thought so," said he. "Do you know Chaplain Sloan?"
I told him I did not. (I subsequently saw Mr. Sloan at Harrison's Landing.)
"Mr. Sloan," said he,"once preached for us at New Kent; we thought a great deal of him. My mother and myself and wife were members of his church. These young men said he were all students in the classical school he superintended at New Kent. He was a very valuable and useful man amongst us. At the commencement of the war he left us and went, as we understood, to Philadelphia. But we afterwards heard that he had become a chaplain in your army, and we all took a solemn vow that wherever we should meet him we would shoot him; and when we first saw you we supposed that you were Mr Sloan, and you may have observed the young men cocking their guns; this was when we took you for him. And now," said he, "I am very glad that you are not Mr. Sloan, for it would have troubled me all my life to have shot him." I told him my pleasure at not being Mr. Sloan was fully equal to his in not finding him.
He then went on conversing, with the manner of one who had thrown a mighty load off his soul. He evidently did not relish the thought of being the murderer of Mr. Sloan, and sincerely hoped that he might never come in their way. He then told me that he had left his family, mother, wife, and children, at New Kent; and the families of most of the men about him were in that same neighborhood, and that their anxiety had been intense when our army advanced to New Kent. "But," said he, we have been fifteen times in your rear and know all that was done by your troops; and to your credit I must say that your men behaved well. They did not rob the families nor molest them, and I have not heard of a single case of violence. We have heard, indeed, of your taking pigs, turkeys, and chickens; this is what is to be looked for in an army; but we have not heard of a single case of violence or insult to families; that speaks loudly for the discipline of your army."
I told him "I thanked him for that drop of comfort. I knew that the officers aimed to restrain the troops, but sometimes men broke over all discipline."
"Your men," said he, behave well, but don't fight like our men."
"Pray, captain," said I, "where did your men show any superiority to ours?"
"Why, I think in battle fought and nowhere more than at Williamsburg. We fought you with our rear guard we had no expectation of being able to do more than hold you in check until the main body of our forces were out of harm's way. But when your generals were so easily checked this emboldened us to hurry back reinforcements and attempt greater things and I do believe that if we had resolved to make a final stand at Williamsburg we could have bound you there another month and then the heat and fever would have finished the work we began."
"Captain," I replied, "you know that the battle of Williamsburg was mainly fought by one division, General Hooker's. Generals Kearney and Hancock rendered very essential aid, but it was almost night when they reached the field. We had not so many men in that battle as you had, and yours were all the advantages of position, intrenchments, and strong earthworks and we had to debouch into the fields in your front, over a narrow neck of land. You had every advantage that men should ask; the storm was drenching and disheartening; our artillery was engulfed in the mud; yet, notwithstanding all these things, General Hooker, with the aid of three or four regiments of General Kearney's, held his position for five hours, until, by a flank movement of General Hancock, you were driven from the field. In the strength of your intrenchments you ought to have held out against fifty thousand men."
"Well," said he, "we have thought that one of our men was equal to four of yours: that may have been slightly too large; do you not think, in all honesty, doctor, that our men are greatly superior to yours in military qualities?"
"No," said I, "our men are fully equal to yours, and in many respects superior. We are cooler, will endure more, suffer greater hardships, and fight more unflinchingly than yours."  
"Well," said he, smiling, "you have never shown those qualities yet; but I hope, for the honor of the American name, you may in the future. We have had several battles on the Peninsula: in which of these do you think you were victorious?"
"Were you at Savage Station last night, captain, in the battle.?"
"No, we were on the left. But what of it?"
"Why, simply this: that you were most thoroughly whipped, and if you had been there at the conclusion of the firing you would have seen our columns standing where they did at the commencement of the fight; and of your men, there was not one in the open fields, and all your artillery was removed or silenced.'
"And how many men do you suppose General Jackson brought into action?"
"I do not know, certainly, but suppose from forty to fifty thousand.- Well, sir, we had but twenty thousand, all told; and men who have been under arms for twenty-five days, who, during all this time, were enduring the severest toil and exhausting duties, and yet they repulsed twice their number of fresh troops; and in the engagement of last night your men pursued their usual tactics: they crept into ravines, hid behind fences, and skulked like Indians into forests. No captain you have asked my opinion and I have given it to you. Your men, as a general thing are not equal to ours."
He laughed, and said: "Doctor, I have provoked this; we will not be likely to agree, but I don't think less of you for answering and defending your soldiers with spirit. But do you not think that your cause is fatally defeated and the independence of the South certain? We have just come up from the left of your army; we consider the escape of General McClellan hopeless. We have seventy thousand in your rear, and fully as many in front; and entangled in the forest and swamp, how can you escape? It was understood when we left that General McClellan had sent an aid to General Lee, to arrange the surrender of his entire army."
"you may believe it, but I will not; if twenty thousand men could beat back your army last night, I feel sure that seventy thousand will do more than that to-day."
"Well," said he, "there are some things which even brave men cannot do; you cannot drag your cannon through swamps; you cannot move your trains through forests so deep and dark that the light of the sun never reaches the earth; you cannot bridge rivers in the face of a powerful and victorious enemy; we know all this country well, and I assure you the escape of your army is impossible."
"Well, captain, you will find that when you press such men as ours to the wall, they will defend themselves with a desperation which will end in your defeat. Even now, the roar of the battle is the proof that we still have an army."
In the meantime the men on both sides had become quite familiar, and were fully exchanging views. The captain bade me good-bye, and hoped we might meet in better times.

-The Peninsular Campaign in Virginia, or, Incidents and scenes on the battle-fields and in Richmond James Junius Marks
J. B. Lippincott & co., 1864

*Biographical information in Under the Red Patch: Story of the Sixty Third Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1864 by Gilbert Adams Hays.

Next- Who Was Sloan?

Sunday, October 18, 2015

A Historic Vista

While exploring the grounds of historic Cumberland Plantation in preparation for the Cumberland Festival 2015. I found myself standing on the grounds in front of the main building. Admiring the beautiful view of the Pamunkey River, a chord was struck in my memory. I snapped a pic with my prehistoric phone and on arriving home compared to images on my hard drive. This was the result. Excuse my cropping ability.

153 years apart

Monday, October 12, 2015

"Unfounded, Meritless, and Unsupported by Evidence."

A California "watch dog group"(that apparently consists of one person) has put on hold the Pamunkey Indians' quest for recognition by the United States Government. Stand Up for California, is an organization concerned with the growth of Indian reservation gambling. It made a last minute appeal to the Interior Board of Indian Appeals the "appellate review body that exercises the delegated authority of the Secretary of the Interior to issue final decisions . . .involving Indian matters."

Apparently the Federal recognition of the Pamunkey has become caught in the crossfire over the little known issues(at least for people on the East Coast) of “off-reservation casinos" and gambling on "tribal trust lands."

"Stand Up for California's request to the IBIA for reconsideration is unfounded, meritless, and unsupported by evidence, . . .The Tribe's sovereign strength, which traces back well before the arrival of the earliest colonists to Virginia, will see it through this frivolous attack as it has seen it through so many other thoughtless, mean-spirited attacks in the past," said Mark C. Tilden, attorney for the tribe and longtime legal advocate for tribes across the United States.

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Come to the Event . . .

Come to the Cumberland Festival at historic Cumberland Plantation in New Kent, Virginia, October 17 and 18, 2015. See and learn about Life During the Civil War in New Kent as presented by members of the New Kent Historical Society.  Enjoy the grounds and beautiful autumn vistas of the Pamunkey River.

Yours truly will be one of the featured speakers.

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Commerce on the Pamunkey- 1913

Much Building In Prospect -Steamer for the Pamunkey.
 West Point. Va., October 4.-
The Chamber of Commerce met Tuesday night and a stock company was organised(sic) for the purpose of building houses to accommodate the new people coming into the town. The directors of the company have boon appointed, but the  officers of same have not been fully decided upon. The organisation(sic) is to be known an the West Point Building Corporation, and twenty or more houses are to go up at once. There will be building done by others.
With the deepening of the water around the docks at West Point, the completion of the bridge across the Mattaponi River, and the prospect of a bridge across the Pamunkey River, and the building of houses for many people and the many other signs of progress around West Point there comes a cry for a small steamboat up the Pamunkey. W. J. Taylor, of Eltham Farm, New Kent County, calls attention to the fact that although the Southern Railroad skirts the Pamunkey River on the north side, up to the White Mouse, yet a vast territory on the south side of the river has no transportation facilities whatever. That there are many farmers who would grow much produce to ship could they have the chance to do so, and that above White House, where lie some of the largest and finest farms in Virginia, the farmers have no way of shipping their produce, except by the slow process of sail vessel, after a very long haul across the country.
A steamboat on the Pamunkey would awaken the farmers to grow larger crops, when, as the case now stands, they grow only enough for home consumption. The boat would not only handle freight, but many passengers would find it convenient to do their trading in West Point, which is the natural trading place for a large section of this country. The steamboat would be a paying investment, and would greatly increase and bring a large body of people in closer touch commercially with West Point.
In 1867 this present line of steamers was established from Baltimore. The boats, the Kenebeck and the Admiral, used to run up the Pamunkey river to White House until the railroad was completed to West point. In 1867 there was an established line from Norfolk. The Mystic, a moderate sized steamer, was used to accommodate the shippers and the traveling public. This boat ran to White House also until the  railroad was completed, but as a favor stopped at West Point in passing.
The stock books of the new bank have been opened for subscription, and from indications stock subscriptions will be received from every county In Tidewater Virginia, and there is a likelihood that its maximum capital of $50,000 will be oversubscribed. The bank will open its doors about November 1 in its temporary quarters in the Masonic Hall Building, but will move to D and Eighth Streets when the new building is completed. It is said that work on the new building will begin immediately.

-The Times Dispatch(Richmond, Va.) October 05, 1913