Drawing of the destroyed railroad bridge at White House on the Pamunkey

Drawing of the destroyed railroad bridge at White House on the Pamunkey
From the Story of Thirty-third New York Volunteers

Friday, November 25, 2016

Hunting: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

The forests in the vicinity of New Kent Courthouse, always a famous resort for deer, are said to be filled with this favorite game to a greater extent the present season than ever. Large numbers have fallen at the crack of the huntsman's rifle, and a day or two since one expert killed two at once with a double hand gun.

-Alexandria Gazette, 29 Aug. 1867

This year marks the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries.
"Up until that point, hunting had been considered the right of every person in the state with no fees or bag limits. Now, knowledge of these new rules and regulations needed to be disseminated to the general public and new permits and licenses enforced.
Wardens were hired for every county in the Commonwealth from a list of  'suitable persons' selected and delivered by the town councils. Such willing individuals were provided 'with badges, copies of the game laws, application blanks for hunters’ licenses, notices to hunters to be posted in their counties, and … advised to travel their territories as much as possible.' "*

New Kent has always been one of the outstanding hunting counties of the Commonwealth, not merely in 1867 but down to this day. In May of this year the Department purchased some 2,600 acres in the county in the area of Ware Creek for a new Wildlife Management Area.

*- "A Brief History of Terrestrial Game Species Management in Virginia: 1900 – Present"
      Banisteria, Number 41, 2013 Virginia Natural History Society

Tuesday, November 15, 2016

150 Years Ago: The Recovery from War

The York River Railroad.- This line is now progressing finely toward completion, and ere the approaching winter expires, with its accustomed bleakness, the iron horse will be dashing proudly through the rich and productive valley of the Pamunky to West Point, and bringing to this mart the invaluable treasures of York river and its tributaries, together with other desirable products of the Tidewater region. The people along this line, who have suffered almost beyond endurance by the ravages of war, will hail with delight tho sound of the shrill whistle and the graceful train as it glides once more over the land they love. This will, indeed, be a happy era for an enterprising people who are now shut out from this city for the want of requisite facilities to transport them and the products of their indefatigable toil, nearly all of which now find access to Baltimore, Norfolk, and other cities, attributable to the extreme isolated position this country bears to this city since the destruction of this road. We have watched and felt a profound interest in this improvement from its earliest inception to the present moment, and know that previous to the war the most sanguine anticipations of success had been more than realized by ardent friends. The extensive travel and immense freight over it enhanced the thrift of this city no little. A greater portion of this trade justly belongs here, and will naturally come when this avenue has been opened sufficiently for its transition. Till then it will seek other markets, to the great detriment of Richmond, which has already lost materially by unwise legislation on other lines of internal improvement. 
The road is now in excellent running condition to Chickahominy river, a distance of twelve miles from the city, with a material train passing over it daily. A splendid bridge now spans this widely famed stream, and is ready for the trains to pass over, with the exception of putting the rail down, which, we are informed, will be done in a few days. The grading north of the Chickahominy is of a lighter character than that already finished, and continues to the White House. There will be a passenger car placed on the road when completed to Dispatch station, for the accommodation of the public. This is only two miles north of the bridge, and will soon be ready, from the fact of the large number of hands employed. 
General William H.F. Lee has contracted to furnish all the material for constructing a bridge across the Pamunky river, and with his usual promptness will have the whole of it in place at the time specified. The building of the bridge must necessarily consume much time, owing to its large dimensions, etc. There are laborers at this time engaged in putting piles in their proper places for superstructure of bridge. If I there is nothing to retard the present operations on the road, we can with safety say that it will be completed to the White House by the 1st of February next. 
It will be ineffable pleasure to see this line opened to West Point. The enormous prices that fish add oysters now command in our markets will suddenly collapse, and we will be enabled to indulge in the luxuries of salt water without fear of being made bankrupts by paying the exorbitant prices of $1.50 per gallon for oysters, and in the same ratio for fish. 
Mr. Williams, do continue to hurry up the road, so that we can get to York river, and feast on bivalves, trout, sheepshead, drum, and hogfish. 

-The Daily Dispatch, 12 November 1866

Saturday, November 5, 2016

New Kent Votes in the Presidential Election: 1788 - 2016- Updated!

1788, 1792- George Washington ran without opposition

1796-ADAMS (F) [elector Mayo 57- elector Griffin 23]- JEFFERSON (DR) 60

1800-JEFFERSON (DR) 105- ADAMS (F) 87

1804-JEFFERSON (DR) 47-

1808-MADISON (DR) 60- MONROE 52

1812-MADISON (DR) 64- KING (F) 55

1816-MONROE (DR) 26-

1820- James MONROE faced no opposition in 1820


1828-JACKSON (D) 96- ADAMS (NR) 77

1832-JACKSON (D) 71- CLAY (W) 33

1836-WHITE (W) 108- VAN BUREN (D) 57

1840-HARRISON (W) 198- VAN BUREN (D) 156

1844-CLAY (W) 198- POLK (D) 177-

1848-TAYOR (W) 176- CASS (D) 101

1852-SCOTT (W) 174- PIERCE (D) 148-

1856-BUCHANAN (D) 193- FILLMORE (NA) 169


1864- Part of the Confederate States of America

1868-  Virginia not readmitted to the Union until 1870

1872-GRANT (R) 474- GREELEY (D) 362

1876-GRANT (R) 540- TILDEN (D) 470

1880-HANCOCK (D) 107 [+324 READJUSTER]¹   GARFIELD (R) 361

1884-BLAINE (R) 691- CLEVELAND (D) 440

1888-HARRISON (R) 689- CLEVELAND (D) 375


1896-MCKINLEY (R) 446- BRYAN (D) 369-

1900-MCKINLEY (R) 447- BRYAN (D) 282-

1904-PARKER (D) 127- ROOSEVELT (R)  75

1908-BRYAN (D) 193- TAFT (R) 159- DEBS (SOC) 2

1912-WILSON (D) 136-  ROOSEVELT (PRO) 32-  TAFT (R) 15

1916-WILSON (D) 192- HUGHES (R)  69

1920-COX (D) 190- HARDING (R) 109

1924-DAVIS (D) 178-  COOLIDGE(R) 86- LAFOLLETTE (PRO) 15

1928-HOOVER (R) 217- SMITH (D) 178


1936-ROOSEVELT (D) 307- LANDON (R) 120

1940-ROOSEVELT (D) 286- WILKIE (R)  133

1944-ROOSEVELT (D) 329- DEWEY (R) 158

1948-TRUMAN (D) 277- DEWEY (R) 140- THURMOND (SR) 92- WALLACE (PROG) 1-                          THOMAS (SOC) 3

1952-EISENHOWER (R) 455- STEVENSON (D) 400- HASS (SL) 5- HOOPES (SOC) 1-                              HALLINAN (PROG) 1

1956-EISENHOWER (R) 510- STEVENSON (D) 178- ANDREWS (SR) 189- HASS (SL) 3

1960-NIXON (R) 526- KENNEDY (D) 481- COINER ²(CON)² 10- HASS (SL) 1

1964-JOHNSON (D) 684- GOLDWATER (R) 677- HASS (SL) 4

1968-HUMPHREY (D) 765- NIXON (R) 526- WALLACE (AI) 609- BLOMEN (SL) 1-
         GREGORY (PF) 1- MUNN (PROB) 2

1972-NIXON (R) 1370- MCGOVERN (D) 633- SHMITZ (AI) 19- FISCHER (SL) 7

1976-CARTER (D) 1338- FORD (R) 1259- CAMEJO (SW) 9- ANDERSON (AM) 14-
          LAROUCHE (USL) 17- MACBRIDE (LIB) 7

1980-REAGAN (R) 1739- CARTER (D) 1204- ANDERSON (I) 68- COMMONER  9-
         CLARK   5

1984-REAGAN (R) 2679- MONDALE (D) 1204- LAROUCHE (I) 16

1988-BUSH (R) 2917- DUKAKIS (D) 1427- FULANI (I) 20- PAUL (LIB) 20

1992-BUSH (R) 2708- CLINTON (D) 1738- PEROT (REF) 1017

1996-DOLE (R) 2852- CLINTON (D) 1859- PEROT (REF)  520

2000-BUSH (R) 3934- GORE (D) 2055- NADER (G) 81- BUCHANAN (REF) 11-
         BROWNE (LIB)     20

2004-BUSH (R) 5414- KERRY (D) 2443-  BADNARIK (LIB) 42- PEROUTKA (CONS) 41

2008-MCCAIN (R) 6385- OBAMA (D) 3493- NADER (I) 36- BARR (LIB) 28-
         BALDWIN (CONS) 19-  MCKINNEY (G) 16

2012-ROMNEY (R) 7246- OBAMA (D) 3555-  JOHNSON (LIB) 82 - GOODE (CONS) 34-
         STEIN (G) 24

2016- TRUMP (R)  8117- CLINTON (D) 3545- JOHNSON (LIB) 347- STEIN (G)  52-                                 MCMULLIN (I) 102

AI- American Independent Party
AM- American Party
CON- Conservative Party of Virginia¹
CONS- Constitution Party
CON-U- Constitutional Union Party
D- Democratic Party
DR- Democratic Republican
F- Federalist Party
G- Green Party
LIB- Libertarian Party
NA- Native American Party
N-DEM- Northern Democrats
NR- National Republican Party
PF- Peace and Freedom Party 
POP- Populist Party
PR- Progressive Party (1912)
PRO- Progressive Party (1924)
PROB- Prohibition Party
PROG- Progressive Party (1948-52)
R- Republican Party
REF- Reform Party
S-DEM- Southern Democrats
SR- State's Rights Party
SRD- State's Rights Democrats
SL- Socialist Labor Party
SOC- Socialist
USL- U.S. Labor
W- Whig Party

¹ - The Readjuster Party was a Virginia political movement of the 1880's. In 1880 they nominated their own slate of Presidential electors to support Democratic candidate Winfield Scott Hancock.
² - The Conservative Party of Virginia was a conservative third party splinter group that hope to draft Sen. Harry F. Bird.

All election returns are from the authors personal research over the years.

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

A Strange Tale of 1888 - Epilogue

So the mysterious tale entitled "The Seal Broken"was revealed to be, in the end, not some great archaeological discovery along Ware Creek, but instead a newspaperman's April Fools Joke. These had become not uncommon at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and New Kent would again feature prominently in one in 1902. New Kent with its close proximity to Richmond but small population(pop.1890-5,511) and heavily forested terrain seemed to appeal to newspapermen when in search for a locale to place "strange, but true" stories. Look for more of these to be published here.

The story of amazing, subterranean discoveries would have been familiar to American readers of Jules Verne; "Journey to the Center of the Earth" had first been published in English in 1871. An actual discovery closer to hand would have been that of Luray Caverns whose existence first became know to the world in 1878. The Caverns were frequently in the newspapers in the 1880's as they were promoted as a tourist attraction. Poe himself had perpetrated, not an April Fool's joke but an outright hoax in 1844 when he claimed in the pages of the New York Sun that men had successfully crossed the Atlantic by balloon from Norfolk, Virginia. Interestingly that same year, Poe's old employer, the Southern Literary Messenger had published an article about The Stone House, from which story many of the legends mention in the "The Seal Broken" appear to spring.

The Stone House survives today in the name of the Stonehouse magisterial district in northwestern James City County.

Monday, October 31, 2016

A Strange Tale of 1888- Conclusion

The Seal Broken continued from October 22nd, 25th, and 28th . . .

While making another circuit of the apartment we were startled by an exclamation from Tupps. "The Devil." he cried, and a blaze of fire leaped from the muzzle of his gun. A shower of hail fell around us. and a most astounding report followed the discharge. The sound was most terrific as it roiled and reverberated through the caverns, and was echoed and re-echoed down the aisles and passages until it died away like a receding storm cloud. We looked up, and for some time were rooted to the spot in consternation. Immediately over us stood a gigantic form. His eyes gleamed in the firelight, two horns arose at the temples, his arms were outstretched, his body writhed, and from it dropped the glittering hail stones. Braddenham was the first to recover, and going boldly up to the monster struck him a blow with his hatchet, which caused another down pour of hail. But that blow dispelled the illusion. The Devil was a stone image at least twelve feet high, mounted on a pedestal about three feet high. As the flames on the altar mounted higher we were enabled to make a closer examination. The rude figure was evidently designed to inspire the beholder with terror. The eyes were two glittering stones, the horns appeared to be the tusks of some large animal, the nose was aquiline, the features most repulsive, and from the open mouth protruded sharp, white teeth and tasks of bone. Around the arms and neck of the giant strings of beads and shells were fastened with cooper wire, and thus covered the body like a garment. As many of these beads and shells had been cut away by the charge of bird shot in Tupp's gun, the mystery of the hail-storm was explained. We were much gratified to find our devil to harmless, and in retaliation for the scare he had given us treated him with some indignities. We broke off his tusks, attempted to pull out his eyes, and stripped him of his garment of shells. Lane was not satisfied until he seated himself astride the neck of the monster, where, holding on by the horns, he exclaimed: "Bonets el grates Diabolus un vinxi." Lane is a scholar, and says this is Chaldaic, meaning "The good and great fear of the devil."

                                                            THE TOMB OF KINGS.
This statue stood about six feet from the side of the cave. Behind it we discovered an arched doorway, and this we concluded to follow. About 100 yards further on we entered another but somewhat smaller chamber. The first thing to attract our attention was the snowy appearance of the door. The fine white sand was as hard and as compact as marble. The walls and ceiling were covered with conch and other shells of snowy whiteness or beautifully tinted. It was a palace of pearl; but soon we found that it was also a charnel-house. On stone tables, and in niches in the walls, hundreds of skeletons were seen. We did not lose much time in the examination of those repulsive objects. At one aide of this apartment there was a stone dais, approached by three steps, on which was a chair or bench, also of stone. Back of this was an arched opening, and across it extended a rod of bone or ivory, on which were several copper rings. Passing through this opening we entered a circular room, about fifteen feet in diameter, and here saw a skeleton lying on a table of hewn granite. There were many other articles piled on the table with the bones. Among them we found stone tomahawks and arrow-heads, bow of ivory, a rusty cutlass, many strings of beads, and at the foot the skeleton of a dog. The only article we bought of sufficient value to bring away was a large clay pipe with a silver band round it, on which was engraved: "To the Puissant Warrior and Mighty Potentate, Powhatan. From his trusty brother, Sir Thomas Dale." On looking at our watches we now found that it was 5 o'clock in the afternoon. We had been walking nearly ten hours, and were tired and hungry. Only few of the numerous caverns had been explored, but we concluded to return and pursue the investigation at another time. On the way back we had occasion to congratulate Braddenham on fore sight in furnishing a guide. Without the string we would not have been enabled to have found our way through the labyrinth of passages. When we emerged from the opening into daylight we experienced a feeling of relief, but a bewildering sense of having passed the hours in dreamland. An extract from the writings of Captain John Smith, as published, may appropriately close this account of our discoveries. In "Voyages and Discoveries," speaking of the Indian, he says: 
"But their chief God they worhsip is the Divill. Him they call Oke,and serve him more of feare than love. * * * ln their temples they have his image evill favouredly carved and then painted and adorned with copper, and heads; and covered with, a skin in such manner as the deformity may well suit with such a God. "Their principall Temple or place of superstition is at Uttamussack. Upon the top of certaine redde sandy hills in the woods, there are three great houses filled with Images of their Kings and Devills and Tombes of their Predecesors. This place they count holy as that none but the Priestess and Kings dare come onto them, nor the Salvages dare not go up the river in boates by it, but that they sollemnly cast some piece of copper, white beads, or Pocones into the river, for fear their Oke should be offended and revenged of them. They have also divers conjurations. One they made when Captain Smith was their prisoner.
"Again, after briefly relating the incident of his rescue by Pocahontas, Captain Smith, in his General History, says:

"Two days after, Powhatan having disguised himself in the most fearefullest manner he could, caused Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there upon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not, long after, from behind a mat that divided the house was made the most dolefullest noyss he ever heard: then Powhatan, more like a Divill than a man, with some two hundred more as black as himselfe, cae unto him and told him. now they were friends, and presently he should go to Iames towne, to send him two greate gunnes and a gryndstone, for which he would give him that Country of Capahowsick, and forever esteeme him as his son Nantaquoud."
This is the valiant soldier's short and modest account of the strange ceremonies by which he was adopted as the son of Powhatan. The full story may have been written by him, but the friend to whose discretion he committed the publication of his writings foresaw with prophetic ken that scoffers in the nineteenth century would charge the hero as a lying braggart, and he wisely withheld it from the world. The mysteries of the cave have been as a sealed book for nearly three hundred years, and on the 1st day April, Anno Domini 1888, the seal has been broken and the way has been opened to the temple of Oke and the tombs of a royal line.                                                    
D. C. R.

- Richmond Dispatch, 1 April 1888

You will notice the date of publication
More tomorrow on this strange tale.

Friday, October 28, 2016

A Strange Tale of 1888- Part Three

The Seal Broken continued from October 22nd and 25th . . .

Here we noticed that we were following the stream from the falls. Going on four hundred yards forward and many feet downward, we were again arrested by a body of water, which extended entirely across the cavern into the blackness beyond, we tried the depth of this gulf with our poles but it was apparently bottomless. A large rock was tied on the end of the rope and lowered, but it rolled down the slope sides and found no resting-place for more than sixty feet. "Drat the luck; I wish I had my boat," said Tupps, showing the disappointment he felt the water was warm, and had a brackish, sulphurous taste. After standing for some time undecided how to proceed, Braddenham remarked, "Well, boys, I reckon we'll have to swim it." This proposition was not relished by at least one of the party for he could not swim a stroke. Braddenham at once undressed, and breaking off a piece of the pole, tied it to his back, the end rising about two feet above his head. To the end of this pole be attached a lantern, and then without a moment of hesitation let himself down into the water. He was a good swimmer, and in few minutes only the light from the lantern could be seen dancing across the darkness. After going about fifty yards it was seen that he had stopped, and now he was returning, but in a zigzag course. As soon as he reached the shore he said: "It's all right; I reckon you can walk across." This appeared absurd, but he explained that in swimming a ledge of rock had been struck, and this he found extended back to where we were standing. Braddenham then started again, this time walking on the rock below the water carefully feeling with his pole. After a while we heard the words "All right" come from out the Stygian blackness and saw his light returning. The journey had been successfully accomplished by him, and we all prepared to cross over, we had been paying out the twine as we proceeded, and now it was discovered that the end of it had been reached. Tupps then went back to the falls to break it at that point, as this portion of the route was straight, and it was not probable we would lose our way on the return. When he came back we all started across, with Braddenham in front. The ledge was entirely under water, but in no place more than one foot below the surface. The face of the rock was smooth and from twelve to eighteen inches in width. We proceeded cautiously along the crooked pathway, feeling with our poles before making a step. Tupps had no pole, and soon we heard a load splash as his bulky form fell into the water. "Take my gun," was his first exclamation, as his head appeared on the surface and he was seen clinging to the lock. Lane relieved him of the weapon, which was found to be dry, and he climbed up again. Without further mishap we reached the shore, and, as well as we were able to judge, found that the gulf was about six hundred yards in length. Its width we were unable to determine. Here we put on our shoes, which had been removed, and fastening the end of the string to a rock, proceeded on our journey. 

Our course was now upward, and walking was difficult. The ground was wet and muddy, anti the passage was almost choked up in some places by earth and fallen rocks. But we were stimulated by the thought that we were climbing towards daylight, and walked or crawled along as fast as possible. At length our feet struck solid ground again, and we hail suddenly entered another large chamber, this apartment was octagonal in shape, and nearly two hundred yards from side to side. The floor was hard and dry, and the roof could not be seen by the light from our lanterns. Near the place at which we had entered in there was a large pile of lightwood and a considerable quantity of a substance which we found to be pitch. In the centre of the room stood a high altar of atone with steps leading up to it nearly fifty small alters were found encircling the apartment. "Let's make a fire," said Lane, and the suggestion was carried into execution. Gathering arms full of light-wood, and rolling a large mass of pitch to the altar in the centre, we piled up the fuel and applied a match. Soon the flames were leaping high towards the roof, and Tupps, who had climbed upon the altar, was enveloped in a cloud of steam ascending from his wet clothing. "Look!" said Tupps, holding up a human skull. We did look and the whole scene was weird and impressive. The flames were shouting high in the air and strange objects were revealed by the lurid glare. The walls of the cavern and the roof were momentarily brought to view and then suddenly disappeared. Fantastic pictures were thrown upon the background of dark beats, and uncouth forms of men and beasts stood out from the rocky walls. Above us in a blaze of light was the huge form of Tupps, holding in his hands the evidence of man's mortality. On examination was seen that the top of the altar was concave, and raking away the ashes we found many calcined human bones. 

"While walking around the altar one of the party struck his foot against an object winch had been lying within the shadow of the steps, and it rolled out into the light with a metallic sound, it was found to be a copper box, about six by four inches and one inch deep. At each end there were places through which a belt might pass, and thus strap it to the waist. Opening this box we found some letters scratched on the inside of the lid, and by the firelight read the words: "Captain John Smith; his Cartouch." The contents of the box were then examined. First we found a small brass-bound pocket-compass, and next a parcel wrapped with black silk. Removing this covering a small piece of parchment was seen, and in this a long tress of dark-brown hair. On the parchment these words were written: " 
Dorothea Harlow; Virtuous, Adorable, but Unstable; who affected to regard ye Estimacion of her Ardent Admirer, but disdained ye True Love of ye Souldier for ye foppish fancy of a Titled Ryvall, and sent her Disconsolated True Knighte to perish in this Heatherne Land by ye hande of Salvages." 
At the bottom of the box we found another writing. The ink was faded and the paper much mutilated. Holding it up to the light we finally deciphered most of the writing, which ran as follows: 

"Most Illvstriovs, And Most Noble :- 
Forasmvch as a Trve and Faithfvll accompte of all my Adventvres In this Heatherne Covntrie haith come vndar ye reach of my owne rovgh Pen, I praie Yovr Grace to give dve Dilligence to ye same, and not sette downe against me yt aught is written in ill conceit or Vain Glory. Concerning divers Tryalla and Adventvres in these Parts there were manie to Witness, bvt of my Perille and safe Deliverance from ye crvell Death at ye hands of Powhatan and his salvages there is none to beare Wittnesse save ye Salvages themselves and Pokahuntas who did save my life, and she from Modestie doth not discovrse of the matter. My present Adventvre in ye Cave of Salvage Priestess, and ye many extremities of my sitvacion in Perills of Wind and Water and of Fire have all been Trvly sette downe, but leaste diverse persons shovld make Impvtacion yt such Relation is wanting Proofs, and a knowledge of Crvelties by ye Indians shovld be prevencion from settleinge by many others in these forraine lands, I praie Yovr Grace will daigne to vse a Critticks Art In making  pvblick such parts of ye present Writings as will preserve ye Repvtacion of Actor and Relator, and promote ye Glory of god. In ye present weaknesse * * * * [here several sentences are illegible.] * * * bvt with all Energie and Care to compass ye projekt. 
Your Grace, his Most Faithfull and Devoted Servant. JOHN SMITH." 7 th. January 1607. 
After reading this letter our desire to explore every portion of the cavern was greatly increased, but this was impracticable at the time, as we found more than a dozen passages leading in different directions. A large quantity of fuel was piled upon the altar, and the ruddy glow beat back the dark shadows toward the wall. 


Tuesday, October 25, 2016

A Strange Tale of 1888- Part Two

The Seal Broken continued from October 22nd . . .

Tupps, who was in front, could scarcely squeeze his bulky form through the narrow opening, For more than fifty yards we compelled to crawl along the low tunnel, but the floor was very smooth and dry and the walls were regular. Having proceeded some distance we were halted by an exclamation from Tupps, who was peering into the darkness below. The cavern had now widened so that we all came up and stood abreast. "Here's the bottomless pit!" said Tupps, with a laugh and the sound echoed from the depths like the voice of a lost spirit. "What's that?" said Lane, and echo repeated the question. Braddenham lowered his pole, but the bottom was not reached.  The lantern was then tied to the rope and let down, when the bottom was found to be not more than twenty feet below. It appeared that the end of our journey had been reached, for while we might have descended by aid of the rope, the difficulty of getting up the perpendicular walls could not be so easily overcome. The apartment in which we stood was about ten feet wide, and the vaulted roof was some distance above our heads. At length we found a small opening on our right, which we entered, and discovered it led downward, winding to the left. Continuing on in this downward and circuitous route, we reached the level and stood in a large chamber immediately below the place from which we had last started.

While wandering around in this place we were startled by an exclamation, as one of the party stumbled in the darkness and fell. When Braddenham came up with the light we found Lane at full length on the ground clasped in the arms of a grinning skeleton. We started back, Lane arose, and with some irritation gave the cause of his mishap a kick, which caused the skeleton to fall to pieces and the skull to roll some distance away. Near this object we found a bone-handled hunting-knife much eaten by rust, two copper shoe-buckles and a large flint-lock gun. The stock of the gun fell off as Lane attempted to pick it up, and crumbled with the touch; but by careful handling we were able to examine it, and found carved in large letters the name and date: "Jeremy Allicock, Ancient, 1607," The word "Ancient" probably meant ensign, and from the date we inferred that the luckless owner of the ancient weapon was one of the first "adventurers" to the colony. We now passed through this chamber, and continuing on about 100 yards entered another larger chamber.

This apartment was circular in form and about three hundred feet in diameter. In the centre we could not touch the roof with our poles, but it sloped down within reach at the side walls. While, standing here we were surprised to perceive a current of air which swept like a whirlwind around the chamber. At times we could not feel the wind, but soon its approach was heralded by a low, musical sound, and the current swept around the cavern, gaining force and momentum with each shortened circuit. In the middle of the cave the wind roared and rushed with great fury, and whirled us about in a bewildering manner. Our lanterns had been extinguished and the darkness was of that character which could almost be felt, we now groped our way to the sidewall of the chamber, and taking advantage of a lull in the storm relighted the lanterns. Soon the low musical found was heard and the storm was again approaching. "Boys, let's get in the cyclone again," said Tupps "I enjoy it, even if I do have to hold the hair on my head." Saying this, he sprang forward and in a few minutes was mounted on a flat rock in the middle of the cave, whirling around like a Dervish. The lantern in his hand remained lighted, and as he spun around a circle of light encompassed him. We were much amused by the grotesque antics of the fat and amiable Tupps, but our mirth was changed to consternation as we heard him utter a yell for assistance and saw him rapidly sink down and disappear. Braddenham was the first to rush to his assistance. The fury of the storm had not abated, and his lantern was soon extinguished. He gave it to Lane, who returned to the wall to relight it. When the wind had subsided we approached the middle of the apartment and discovered a circular hole, about four feet in diameter, at the spot where Tupps had last been seen. Braddenham, who hail been crawling around in the dark, now came up, and bending over the opening called to Tupps. "Here I am!" sounded a voice very near us, "a little disfigured, but still in the ring." Tupps had been lying down, but he now arose, and taking the light commenced to examine his surroundings. We all then descended and discovered that the flat, circular platform had gone down about five feet in spiral grooves cut into the surrounding rocks. In this well we found the door to another tunnel, which we entered and followed for several hundred yards. This passage inclined gradually downward and grew, larger as we proceeded. Presently we heard the splashing of water. The atmosphere of the cavern was now moist, the ground was covered with a wet, sticky clay, and many large boulders obstructed our progress.

Climbing over these obstructions, we continued on in the direction of the sound until our progress was arrested by a broad sheet of limpid water, falling apparently from considerable distance directly across our path. At this place there were many excavations and side passages, but the most of them led only a short distance. We followed the winding course of one of these passages for more than half an hour, but finally emerged through an opening near the point of entrance at the foot of the falls. In this labyrinth of so many intricate passages it was difficult for us to determine how we should proceed. Lane pushed his pole through the sheet of water and found that it met with no obstruction. We then discovered that although the waters ware spread out more than twelve feet, the sheet was only a few inches in thickness. The pole divided this sheet like a curtain, and by raising it an opening was made sufficiently wide for us to enter, "Here we go," said Lane, and he passed through the opening with a lantern in his hand. The curtain was then allowed to fall, and the effect was indescribably beautiful. The sheet of water gleamed and sparkled like a revolving belt of polished silver, refracting the light from the other side. Again dividing the waters we all went through the opening and found the passage was leading onward and descending down ward.