Pamunkey River

Pamunkey River
The Pamunkey River in 1864

Sunday, October 6, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part VII

  The final letter to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from New Kent during the Peninsula Campaign of 1862


                                                    (Our War Correspondence.)
                                  From the Fifth Vermont Regiment.
                                                          Camp at the White House, Va.,
                                                                                                 May 17. 1862

Mr. Willard: Well I yes, well! And that ejaculation don't begin to express what I wish it to convey. About two hours ago I closed a letter for your columns, informing you that we were to march at meridian. Everything was made ready for the "fall in" command. Tents were struck, rations dealt out for sixty hours, knapsacks packed and slung, the usual amount of grumbling, questioning and swearing done and performed, baggage cut down below the army standard, mess chests thrown out, sick call made, and last, but not least, the grounds swarmed with mounted specials, all accounted for another harvest of bloody news. The day being bright and balmy the boys felt well, expecting before nightfall to reduce the distance, if not some military obstructions, between them and Richmond. But back comes the rattling, surging caissons and artillery, and the long, glistening lines of infantry "stack arms," "break ranks," and commence again another siege of resting, loafing and growling. How pic-tur-es-que! Did you ever sit down to a dainty meal, hungry and over-impatient for the eating ceremonies to begin, and just as your dish was tilled and ready tor the thirsting, longing palate, have some saucy blackguard or roguish friend tell a story that blockaded every avenue of nourishment and appetite as effectually as if a doctor bad administered some drug emetic? If you have, you can form some idea of the sensations of a soldier when orders are countermanded, after he has packed, and swore, and growled enough to scare at least a full regiment of rebels. But this is only one, and by no means the most trying perplexity of soldiers on the march. Well, we shall probably go sometime. The distance, some twenty-five miles, is nothing, but heavy bodies move slow, especially if they happen to collide with other bodies of equal gravity and momentum. But sooner or later, perhaps not as speedily as you or we may desire, this army will be in Richmond.
That Power that holds destiny in one hand, and grace, love and pit dun in the other, has he decreed it, and as well might the enemy attempt to choke the roar, or catch the rain-bowed spray of Niagara's falling waters, or one by one to pick the orbs of night from the blue behind the breaking, drifting clouds, as to stay the slow, heavy, steady tread of McClellan's squadrons and battalions. Richmond is ours, not to day, but one June day sim will ever warm the viper of treason that now so safely slumbers in its streets.
But I have written you once to-day, and as I only a few minutes ago received a letter from Montpelier with something very much like, but still it was not quire a rebuke, for "writing three letters in one day," I think I will be more prudent hereafter, and give a finale to this before it assumes the proportions of a correspondence." 
Yours, &c., See See Ess.


-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman, May 29, 1862


Next time, who was "See See Ess?"


Saturday, September 14, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part VI

Continuing a series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. In this letter our correspondent continues his adoration of "Little Mac," and denounces the "cruelty and barbarity"  . . . of those who he has traveled half the country to kill.

(Language warning)


(Our War Correspondence)
                                 From the Fifth Vermont Regiment

                                                                   Camp at White House Farm, Va,
                                                                                    May 17th, 1862.

Mr. Willard: We have been in this camp since the forenoon of the 14th inst., and troops are concentrating here all the time. Transportation has been greatly impeded by the long rain storm, making the roads almost impassable. I learned yesterday that the roads between this camp and our last one, at Cumberland, are filled with our wagons fast in the mud. But slowly thy keep coming up, and should say that now we have at least sixty thousand men at this camp- all on one level, open field, the east side being skirted by the river with its raking musts and smoking chimneys. Near the northeast comer is the White House, a very respectable, but not costly or fancy residence. Its yard and garden grounds are extensive, unique, and very pleasant, just the place to satiate the extravagant home feelings of the most princely American.
Upon these grounds Little Mac ins pitched his tents, and himself and staff are evidently quite at home in their shade and clover. Though strictly guarded, the premises are constantly surrounded by thousands of anxious soldiers,- anxious for what? Why, more to see their General than this deserted homestead of the arch traitor, for we all love him, and it is a satisfaction that no soldier can express to belong to this army, to share their trials and sufferings with one they so much honor and esteem. Yea, I have told you this before. Nothing can shake our confidence in that man, for it in absolute, like the faith of the Christian mother in her God.
But now, on we go. It is only eight o'clock, and at twelve we march again, -that is, this division, and for aught I know, others. But I think the order is for this division only, us we have all the time been pushed in advance, and shall be until somebody's appointment as a Brigadier General is confirmed; at least, that is what we all think. But no matter; if we are to fight so as to kill two birds with one stone, so much the better. Yet, it may cost us a little more blood to do this "heavy and perilous work."(1) We have a fierce, bitter and desperate foe before us, and from many specimens that I have seen of their rank and file, as also of their officers, and from the further evidence before us of their cruelty and barbarity, it is hard, very hard indeed, to persuade myself that these men were ever amenable to the influences of Christianity. God knows I pity them, and while we fight them as enemies, and day by day become more familiar with their folly, perverseness and crime, our shame for them as countrymen is augmented. But, as I have just told you, we are to proceed on, -onward to Richmond, and should it be my good fortune to live to pass this equator of Rebeldom, I expect to see enough more of treason and its blind adoration to enable me to finish this partial exordium of my hate. 
What is to be the character of our march from this point, cannot be known. Ayers' battery has just gone on gunboats. Our order is to march at noon with two days' rations, but as a remark, apt and spicy, and too good to be lost, amid not contraband, I think, I must inform you that my friend, Maj. Joyce, says "very man is to be put in a runner case and floated up the river." Not bad; we are short of transportation, and the idea, impromptu and original is not much behind Gen. Mitchells cotton bale bridge(2). By the way, this reminds me of an other good thing on a Washington County officer. and when you are short for "copy,' just ask, in a mild but not exactly leading manner, Capt. Randall about his novel mule trade, and he will sell you something rich. I once owned a mule myself, and can in a measure sympathize with the Captain when his transaction, like my own, comes to be a standing joke. Don't be afraid; the Captain is the best natured man in the world, and in self-defence(sic), will give you at least "a plain, unvarnished title." 
For a wonder, we have not seen a wood-tick since we have been in this camp. Yet it is no wonder either, for we are fully a quarter of a mile from timber. But we have the marks of our old friends still about us, in the shape of blotches and sears, and to make a clean breast of it, we are just about as well tick, flea and bug bitten, dirty, ragged and cross as we can he and still be in a condition to make a good fight. Soldiers must have something ail them besides hunger, or they would be of little account. I said hunger, for I can think of nothing else that plagues us more. Yet we have enough to eat, such as it is; at the same time we can't call it nourishment; it is simply subsistence. And just as I feel now, though I am not hungry, and do not expect to die just yet, I would freely give five dollars, if I had it, for the measure of good bread and milk that I could "mow away." That may look a little extravagant in your " price current," but the late sutler tariff has used us soldiers to such extravagance. "Uncle Ira" says, "he saw a nigger this milking milking a cow, and he had a mind to run up and knock him over and take the milk; and there are many soldiers here who would not have showed a good revolution in that way, they would have knocked him over. 
But I am writing more than I intended to, and taking time that I should be giving to preparations for the march, Richmond! Richmond, the great Babel of rebellion, is all we think about. Shall we ever get there? I hope so, and if we do, your correspondent will have something besides a dearth of news for his letters. What a field will then he open for the rivalship of scribblers. Somebody will "spill" in attempts at sensation. Artemas (3) will be there to tell his tale and open his show, exhibiting to the astonished natives "wax works" of their forefathers, and the Dixie mummies of their descendants. And can't Greeley, or some one else, be there to read Othello's tale, of "men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders, the anthropophagi,"(4) and other monsters that picture best his horror and his hate? Certainly we can. Well, well see by-and-by. We may be weeks on the road, -the 2d Vermont has been a year already,- but some of us will get there, or the war will not, as predicted, he speedily closed. 

Yours, &c , See See Ess.

-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman, May 28, 1862



(1) Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchel had recently used a cotton bale pontoon bridge to cross a creek in                  Tennessee.

(2) In April the "Yorktown Correspondent" of the New York Herald Tribune had written,
"When the advance is made whenever that day be -Gen. Wm. F. Smith's division will be first in all heavy and perilous work. No one in the army enjoys the confidence of Gen. McClellan and his generals more than Gen. Smith."
 (3) I assume Artemas Ward, 
"Artemus Ward was a persona dreamed up by 23-year-old New Englander and newspaperman Charles Foster Browne (née Brown—he added the e to affect an English air). Browne started out as a humble typesetter but rose to transatlantic fame thanks to this immensely popular alter ego he created to fill out the pages of the Cleveland Plain Dealer."- American University Magazine, March 2015

 (4) Othello,  (1.3, lines 141-146)


Saturday, September 7, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part V

Continuing a series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. In this letter our correspondent reads purportedly stolen mail and shows himself to be less than a fan of Honest Abe.

(Our War Correspondence.)
From the Fifth Vermont Regiment.
                                                                                            White House Va.,
                                                                                                 May 15, 1862.


Mr. Willard: -It was raining terrible hard yesterday afternoon when I finished my letter at that date, and I told you that there were no indications of its ceasing. It has rained without stint ever since, is coming down now at a good rate, and beat into us by a driving, chilling wind. But I hear no grumbling, though every body looks surly and cross. To prevent sickness from this much exposure, especially colds and ague, the medical staff have just issued to the whole Brigade rations of whisky and quinine, and I have heard of none so temperate as to refuse the dose, and not a few would be glad to have it repeated, that is, it the storm continues. I gave you yesterday a bit of history about our present camp ground, and told you, of course, all I knew, not expecting that I should ever have occasion to write again about these White House people or premises. but I saw a letter to day, that was found about here by some one in the Second Vermont, some of the contents of which are quite interesting and in some senses important.
The letter (without date) was written at Fredericksburg, Va., by Col. W. F. Lee, son of Gen. Lee, to his mother, or "ma," as he terms her, now domiciled at the White House on this place. Alter a pithy and quite sharp rebuke to his wife for neglecting to write him as often as he expected, the Colonel says, (I give you his very words,) "The many reverses we have met with have not discouraged me." He may have told the truth then, but the signs of the times indicate that most of the F.F.V.s are tired and disappointed, if they are not discouraged. "The whole people seem to be panic stricken, and vie with each other in circulating the most improbable reports." If the Northern people were "panic-stricken" and "vieing" in that way, I think that some of our Colonels would feel discouraged.
"I must say that the surrender of Nashville by the Tennesseans caps the climax, and I think that Pillow and Floyd ought to be hung for disgracefully leaving their commands." The young man is no fool, if he is a rebel. Pillow and Floyd had ought to be hung, first by Uncle Sam for stealing and treason, and then by old Jeff for cowardice and treachery. 
He then, after a few remarks about domestic affairs says, I hear it reported that "pa" is to be made Secretary of War. I should n't consent to that, us I do not wish to have him mixed up in polities, but should be glad to see him made Commander-in chief." Ain't he a brick? That '"mixed up in politics" is a splendid idea, for that is just about us bad a mix as most men ever get into. And then his desire to see him Commander-in-chief." There's pride and aspiration for you by the wholesale. I guess the young man ain't badly  discouraged alter all, for his F. F. V. blood seems to circulate freely. "Pa" Commander in chief! Ain't that sublime? "Pa" Gen. Lee, going into Little Mac's bag first and foremost, the bell weather of treason! Keep on aspiring young man, but beware the ides of June.
Before closing his lengthy and quite interesting epistle he advises his mother, as a prudent measure, to take an inventory of the White House property, cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, &c. Now, what does that mean? Putting this and that together, the "inventory" and the "not discouraged" sentiment, and we have quite a puzzle. He certainly must be a very prudent young man, or else be had got on the scent of a big mice. Well, if ever I should meet Col. Lee, I am not sure but that I should be just curious and impudent enough to ask him for an explanation of that puzzle.
Every day we see new evidences of the demoralization of the confederate army. Yesterday, not long after we left Cumberland Landing, a rebel captain, sergeant, and forty men without arms marched into camp and gave them selves up as prisoners of war. What account they gave of themselves or of their army, I have not heard, but expect to do so to-day, but such a desertion is as good an index of the condition of the army as the Barometer is of wind and rain.
You will recollect that just before we left Fairfax County, Gen. McClellan in his address to the army, told us that his movements would seem mysterious to us, and so indeed they are just at this time at any rate. What he intends to do with us now is truly mysterious none of us are able to figure it out. Were we to make a central advance, and reduce their works on the Chickahominy, why make such a halt here?
We do not understand it, but at the same time we have no misgivings about the Generalship of the army. It a flank movement is contemplated, then here is just the place to cross the Pamunkey, and make towards McDowell's column, and why not make such a move? There can certainly be nothing gained by reducing their fortifications on the Chickahominy, when this army can get in position upon their flank much nearer Richmond. With Burnside, on the South, Banks on the West, and McDowell and McClellan on the North of Richmond, there can certainly be no retreat left for them, save this Peninsula, and it is the last place that army will ever fall back upon. McDowell can not come to us or even make an advance near enough to act as a support, but we can go to him, or near enough to allow him to take his forces over the river without danger. But the speculations of a soldier amount to but little. There is a plan, and soon it will be fully carried out.
You have heard, of course, about Old Abe, and our naval forces at Fortress Monroe. What the "special" or official report is I do not know, but the camp story is a little spicy: 
In "ye olden time" Old Abe served his time upon a flat boat, "warping" and pinting"* his craft up and down the Wabash and other Western waters, marketing and peddling lumber and fruit, such as hop poles and pumpkins. In the course of time he became an adept at the business, and could "pint" a craft and cargo equal to the best of the flat boat marines. The rail business offering better inducement for his capital and labor, he soon left the muddy deep, and invested his all in the "stake and rider" business, in which the historian informs us he was very successful, and by dint of a little good management on his part, as also that of his friends, the rail business elevated him to his present exalted position, which he has thus far filled with the most consummate ability. He now visits Fortress Monroe, the great theatre of our naval operation, for the purpose of giving to his distressed country the benefit of his early and finished education upon navigation, and the ebb and flow of tides in our inland waters. Flotillas and squadrons will now be commodored by Old Abe himself, and it would I not be surprising if the first gun boat,  that takes the Stars and Stripe, to the very portals of the rebel metropolis should be "pinted" by Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States. He is there, I say it in no jesting spirit, for a special and heroic purpose. Should this war close without a signal exhibition of heroism on the part of the President, there would be some thing wanting in the embellishments of history, and how could he better show his prowess as well as patriotism, than as the officer first in command of those iron clad monsters that have routed treason from its every stronghold Second, I may be foolish, whimsical and extravagant in this idea, but I certainly am candid in the statement, that neither the army or the navy will be in advance of the President when Richmond falls. History demands it to make the name and administration of Lincoln, historic. 
So we go. I commenced this story with all the jest and humor I could command, and wind it up with some of the most serious reflections, if not important considerations, connected with the final overthrow of rebellion. The President in Richmond, he will have an army for his cabinet. May we welcome him there.

               Yours, &c., See. See. Ess.

-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman, May 23, 1862


* To "warp" a flatboat is to use a rope tied to something on the riverbank to help it move up the river. To "punt" is to move a small shallow boat through the water through the use of a long pole. Our correspondent for some reason spells it pint throughout.


Saturday, August 31, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part IV

Continuing a series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. The Daily Green Mountain Freeman was founded in 1844 in Montpelier, Vermont, as an organ of the anti-slavery Liberty Party that contested the presidential election of that year.

The editor of the Freeman was Charles Wesley Williard, the "Mr. Williard" of the correspondence. Williard (1827-1880) served as editor of the paper from 1861 until 1873. In 1868 he was elected as a Republican to the United States Congress where he served three terms.

Charles Wesley Williard by Matthew Brady


Today our correspondent share his thoughts from White House Plantation on wood ticks, sutlers, and other parasites.



Camp on Gen. Lee's Plantation, May 14. 
Mr. Willard: Late last night I closed a letter, telling you that we expected a continuation of our long marches in the morning. The morning has come and gone, and our march has been made, about seven miles, over a road very difficult for the passage of our artillery and transportation wagons; in fact, they are not all on the ground yet. From my tent I can now see a long train of wagons, among them the balloonwagons, looking for all the world like the monkey cages of a caravan. A large number of troops are halted here, several Divisions, I should judge; none, however, that I am acquainted with, but our own and Porter’s.

We move slowly, but I expect sure, and from all that I can see and surmise I should judge that Little Mac would be ready to exhibit his anaconda and wood-tick how in Richmond on or about the 21st inst. A limited number of Congressmen and other adults are expected to be present to see the anaconda hiss, bite and squeeze. During the week he will be fed on ball cartridges and percussion shells, and, - for further particulars see small bills, or the New York Tribune, H. Greeley, editor. 
Our present encampment is historic ground. The plantation, a very large one, not less than a thousand acres, is now the property of Gen. Lee, in the rebel service. It once belonged to Major Curtis, grandchild of Mrs. Washington. We are now in full view of the old home stead (with new buildings, I presume,) where Washington passed his courtship and honeymoon. A strong guard protects the premises and the plantation. I don't recollect the historian's particulars about this era in the life of Washington, further than when betrothed he used to have considerable business in this latitude; and who would not, to win the affections of such a woman as Martha Curtis(sic)? 
I have just used in my remarks about "Mac's show," the expression, "Little Mac's wood ticks." That was truly an original idea with some one of our soldiers. You all must know what a wood tick is, though l am not sure us they are grown in Vermont; but anywhere West or South they are to the manor born. This peninsula is swarming with them, and at every camp we are sure to get our clothes full of them. 
Of all the pesky insects I have ever had to do with, these wood-ticks are the most annoying, save, perhaps, the regular line-back, kangaroo mosquito, indigenous to the swamps and prairies of the West. You can have no peace day or night, for them. They will get in your ears, in your hair, in (act everywhere about your person, in, d the they commence boring for blood upon the regular Artesian well principle and in a little while these insignificant little creatures swell up like a balloon. Go into a camp any where at anytime and you will find any number of soldiers hunting for "ticks," hence the idea so original and apropos Little Mac's wood ticks."

I have not forgotten my promise to give you in "my next" the grand sutler scene I witnessed yesterday at Cumberland landing. At a moderate estimate there was on that landing, less than a mile square, 40,000 troops, some say 60,000. Now not one of this host of soldiers unless they were smarter than the boys of Vermont Brigade, and Gen. Brooks has effectually contradicted that, had had anything to eat or drink better than a soldier's ration of hard tack, raw pork and bareback coffee for months. 
You can readily conceive what an appetite they had on when the camp news became general that there was a boat-load of sutler's stores at the landing. Chickens to a dough dish is but a poor illustration of the rush to the river's bank for victuals, something that had the smell or taste of buttery about it, cheese, ginger bread, cakes, pies, crackers, and of course tobacco, cider, and I reckon down in the bulkhead a few measures of liquefied rye and com. To their great astonishment and chagrin, the boat was anchored out in the stream some thirty yards from the shore. But there were a dozen or more skiffs about, and all of them in demand taking passengers to and from this boat-load of luxuries. Impatient for passage, many a hungry soldier would wade out in the stream up to his waist to meet the returning bout, while others, still more impatient, threw off their clothes, and plunging in, swam to yonder boat with their mouths crammed full with pocket-book, purse or change. Securing a passage for the moderate sum of twenty-five cents, your correspondent was soon one of them, a lone dollar being all his capital, with which he certainly expected to get as much as a taste of something good to eat, for his bowels yearned exceedingly. The craft was a full rigged schooner of about two hundred tons burthen. Fore and aft there was a hatchway, and down in the hold all the supplies were stored, save a few bands of apple cider on deck. As many as three men at each hatchway officiated as clerks, dealing out the goodies to the hyenas on deck. Now, I cannot believe that any pen can picture out those hatchway scenes; a brush and pencil might do it to advantage, but this little weapon, it is more powerful than the sword, becomes like Samson shorne of his strength when it essays to write out a scene like this. There was first a constant yell, "two pounds of snaps," "one pound of cheese," "three pounds of butter," "ten pounds of tobacco," and now and then you would hear some reckless, hungry, improvident chap sing out, “Here's a dollar get us that's worth of anything, whiskey, tobacco or bread." But, to my great surprise and disappointment, I soon found that a dollar was of much less account there than the same money was in California in 1849, when $12 a dozen for eggs was a moderate charge, and I began to think that by the lime I had paid another quarter for a return passage, my chances for a smell even, say nothing about a taste, would be exceedingly small. However, I saw a cider barrel going, and thinks I to myself, if a half or a quarter has got any show on this boat, that barrel must no the place. So, after pushing, and jamming, and punching, and pulling myself through the crowd, in the course of an hour and a bait I had the good luck to secure a cup full of cider, an excellent article. There was less than a pint, and us it only cost a quarter, I felt relieved after I got myself out of the channel and breathed freely again. Just then I met one of the stark naked customers, and he had a pound of cheese in his arms. What did you pay for that," I asked. "Seventy-five cents." "I'll give you a dollar and a half for it now," put in a ragged, rusty looking soldier by my side. "No you don't," said the cheese man, "I'd rather charge a rebel battery than go naked through that crowd again."

While this conversation was going on an officer came along with a bottle of brandy peaches." How much for that" someone asks. “Two and a half." "Can you get any more." "Yes, you can but I can't, unless you lend me the money." In a little while I soon observed a movement extraordinary near the bow of the schooner. Crowding along up, I soon learned what the matter was. A squad of boys, more liberal in their views of trade and traffic than the proprietor of the concern, had knocked in the head of a cider barrel and were vending the fluid without money and without price, and before the news came to the ears of the sutler, they had sold out. I then stood round the hatchway again and looked in amazement upon these customers packed around, tier above tier, buying their wares. Fully a third of them were swimmers, some Zouaves with their circus riding uniforms and thee balance a crowd of sharp witted, money spending soldiers, the whole group making a tableau such as no artist has ever painted. Tired of all tins, yet I would not have miss id it for an interest in the Tribune's gun factory, I set sail for camp, arriving just in time to settle up my cash account 75 cents for a drink of cider and write up my correspondence for the Freeman and other parties nearer home. 
Great is Diana of Ephesians, but greater still is Horace Greeley of the Tribune, and it seems a pity that he is not a God. Yesterday I made an extract from one of his editorials, wherein he "regretted" that our success at Yorktown was not more sanguinary, that is, he was sorry that your correspondent or somebody else had not mingled their blood with his carnage loving patriotism for the Union and his Brigade. Most of us soldiers are inclined to think that is somewhat cool to say the least, and if we should take time to study on it a little they might get a little wroth. 
It is rainy again, and the signs are that it will continue through the night if not longer. This not just what we could wish, but no move than we can endure. 
By the way that yarn about the Vermont troops going home soon has thickened up a little and last night it was said to be official that all the Vermont troops would soon ho discharged save those who were willing to enlist in the Regular service. You can take as much stock in this as you please and I will sell you all of mine for a small consideration; at the same time I would not be surprised if we should make an advance upon Vermont before the 4th of July. How would it suit women, children and tax-payers?

                              Yours, etc,  See  Ses  Ess.


--The Daily Green Mountain Freeman.(Montpelier, Vt.), May 22, 1862


Sunday, August 25, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part III

Continuing a series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. The Daily Green Mountain Freeman was founded in 1844 in Montpelier, Vermont, as an organ of the anti-slavery Liberty Party that contested the presidential election of that year. In April 1861, at the beginning of the fighting, Charles W. Willard became the owner/editor. He moved the party away from being strictly an anti-slavery paper to one that also followed the war closely. He is the "Mr. Willard" these missives are addressed to.



(Our War Correspondence.
From the Fifth Vermont Regiment.
                                                                   Camp at Cumberland Landing,
                                                                                              May 13, 1862.
Mr. Willard: We are making another halt, either on account of the excessive heat of the day, or for some strategic purpose, I cannot say which; for no one knows, though the questions are in a thousand mouths, what are we halting for. and what are so many troops coming to this one place for? If the thing could be done, I would like very much to have the talent to do it, nor it would be a leather in any man's cap, to write out a complete picture of an army under marching orders. I don't mean a sentimental affair that some novelist could spin out and varnish up for sale in a "yellow kiver,*" but an out and out camp, march and halt story, incident and scene after, that altogether would be a soldier's life, and us such, one of the best inside, green room histories† of the war that can possibly be written. But it is folly to load ourselves down with a bigger back load of aspirations than we can conveniently carry, and at the same time attend to our legitimate business. Now I don't wish to be severe or sarcastic, but I reckon' that truth will set harder on the stomachs of some broken-down politicians than a glass of whisky would. Sir, as we do not aspire to do that other thing, let do what we can for the readers of "our army correspondence" in a plain, off-hand manner.
Last night our brigade, this saucy Vermont brigade, lay five miles in advance of the division, on the road to Richmond, and as we want all the credit we get, I might as well add that we were all as brave as lions. We were sent for ward, I suppose, as an advance guard, that is of infantry, lint our position, after all, was not very perilous, for the enemy was miles ahead of us, as reported by cavalry scouts, their latest news being that a strong rear guard was in position on the Chickahominy.
I ought not to write any more this evening, for I am actually in too good humor to write an army letter. I have a whole book full of notes, some a week old, but I can't get at them as long as I run on in this way. I must have something new. Yesterday some cavalry of the 8th Illinois brought in one of their men wounded. They found him lying on the field where there had been a little skirmish, and a negro was over him trying to cut his throat, but he managed to keep him off with his sabre. They caught the negro and hung him.
It is late, quite, dark, and I'll not write any more to-night, but will close, engaging to give you in my next one of the most graphic sutler scenes ever witnessed. There is no army news that I know of. It seems that we are waiting for the maturing of some new plans; at all events, everything is mysteries to us. There is some talk that we shall have an engagement to-morrow, but I do nut credit it. It may seem foolish for me to say so, Out it is almost impossible for a soldier to obtain any news about our affairs, and if he writes at all he must confine himself to such items us I have just been giving. I hope to write again to-morrow, but may not do so, as we are lo march early, and how far I cannot say. There are a large number of vessels here loaded with supplies, and some with troops. By the way, on our march to-day the 4th regiment got lost. It was marching in the rear, and by some mistake got on to the wrong road, and I understand came near getting into trouble. They are in camp now and all right.
Yours, &c,  See. See Ess,

-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman.(Montpelier, Vt.), May 22, 1862


*-"yellow kiver" i.e. yellow cover, the color of the cover of cheap periodicals of the time.

†-"Green room history" i.e. a behind the scenes account.
In case you are very interested.
" . . . Green room history, etc- The lobby or reception room behind the boxes is often called the Green-room; but that is a misnomer. The Green-room, properly so called probably from its being at first covered with green, is an apartment behind the scenes, contiguous to the stage, where the performers assemble in readiness, at the call of the prompter."
-A Collection of Poems: On Various Subjects, Including The Theatre, a Didactic Essay . . . by Samuel Whyte


Monday, August 19, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part II

Continuing a series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. 
Language warning.


                                                               Camp near New Kent Court House,
                                                                                                 May 12, 1862. 
Mr. Willard: I shall be obliged to with draw my "good bye" apology with which I hastily closed my letter yesterday. It was all right enough then, but things have changed since. Coming in from picket at daybreak this morning I expected to see "the warriors rise from their lowly cots," and all accoutered for the march renew their pursuit after the Flora Temple chivalry of rebeldom. But, hour after hour passed away, and no orders came. What's in the wind, and why don't we march, were questions at large throughout the camp. No one could explain. Hearing that Norfolk was in our possession and that our gunboats were up the James River, I quickly surmised that perhaps Generalship was doing what "long and rapid marches" were originally intended to accomplish, and I soon learned, from quite a reliable source that we were not arching, because fluctuating are the plans of the enemy. Evacuating Norfolk exposes their flank before Richmond, and why should they do this if a stand is contemplated before that city? Still, we may go out to-day (it is not noon yet). I hope so, for every Vermont soldier is anxious to visit Richmond. And this reminds me of an incident worthy of record in any journal.
In making our advances from day today, it is the practice for one Division to lead the column to-day and another to morrow. The same practice extends to Brigades and Regiments the Brigade that leads the Division to day will be in the rear to-morrow.
Now, it so happens that on the day this pursuit commenced, Sunday, the 4th inst., the Vermont Brigade led the column. It was a fine day for marching, and, excited by the many novel scenes of evacuation, the boys let them selves out and did some tall marching. General Keyes and Staff were alone, usually riding at the head of the column, cavalry skirmishers only being in advance. But every now and then he would find himself somewhere behind.
From information given him by these skirmishers and his aids, he had decided on a halt at a place some three miles in the rear of where we finally halted. But the head of the column had already passed this place. So the old General, exhibiting some little restlessness and good nature at the same time, sings out to one of his mounted orderlies: "Orderly, orderly, come here. If your horse has got bottom enough to catch up with that Vermont Brigade, I want you to overtake them and order a halt, tell'em we are not going to Richmond to-day, or to h-ll either." 
So off posted the orderly with his unique order, which I understand he delivered to General Brooks, verbatim, when the old man turned half round, placed his hand upon the rump of his horse, a great habit with him, by the way, and replied, "The h-ll, we ain't." 
A day or two after this we were making an other march, some other Brigade leading. During the day Gen. Keyes had occasion to ride some distance in advance, nearly up to the line of skirmishers or scouts, where he overtook a squad of advance stragglers. It being no place for stray soldiers the General asked them what Regiment they belonged to. "---- Vermont," was the reply. "What, Brooks' Brigade?" "Yes, Sir." Then, after giving the boys a significant look, he remarked, "Well, if that devilish Brigade ain't first into Richmond, some of the men will be," and on he went, leaving the boys alone in their glory. 
It is somewhat late, but there is another incident that I insist upon relating at tins time, and in my own way, for I tell this story not so much to interest your readers, its to give myself an opportunity of hating and almost cursing our fiendish foe.
The morning after the engagement of the 5th inst., before Williamsburgh(sic), the battle ground was strewn with the dead, dying and wounded, "like leaves in Vallambresa."
The night had been very severe upon all save the dead, as the rain fell constantly and the piercing night winds chilled even those, of us who had the few comforts of a bivouac rest - blankets and browse. How acute, then, must have been the sufferings of those bleeding, exhausted and shelterless victims of their own folly At daybreak, however, we had men on the held, and all that could be done to alleviate their sufferings temporarily, until medical an d hospital comforts could be secured, was promptly and cheerfully done. In the rear of the battle ground was a large tobacco house, a building as comfortable as any shelter can be without fire. The floor of this building was covered thick with corn husks, blankets and overcoats were secured, mostly by donation from our own men, and also coffee and other stimulants given those men to warm, nourish and strengthen them, before our medical corps attended to them professionally. Ail was done for the wounded Carolinians that their nearest friends could do under the circumstances, and surely enough to waken gratitude in Sepoys, Savages or Devils. During the day nearly every wound was dressed, several amputations were made, and the beet nourishment that the hospital department hail at command was furnished.
The next day, the second after the battle, they received even additional attentions, very many being forwarded in our ambulances to the river, and sent by boats to northern hospitals. In this building alone there were one hundred and one wounded men, nine-tenths of them Carolinians. Having nothing else to do, I visited these men, conversed very freely with many of them, and not a few who were repentant, and they made to me what I presume they considered an acknowledgement that they were wrong, that they had been deceived, that our soldiers were not vandals; and one of them told me that our wounded at Manassas met a different fate. Passing along, I was soon in conversation with a young Lieutenant who had been wounded near the knee, and as he fell over upon his hands he received another wound in the thigh, the bullet passing up his back and lodging in his neck. His wounds had been well dressed, his bed furnished with matrass(sic), blankets and pillow, and clean under clothes given him by Lieut. Sawyer of the 2d Vermont. In short, he was comfortable, suffering but little from his wounds; and being very talkative, I remained in conversation with him for sometime. Not many, if any, leading questions were asked or answered, he talking mainly upon the relative manhood of the two armies, saying, of course, very much about Southern blood, how the world over it had ever been victorious. For a sick room, and more especially for a sick man, our conversation was quite spirited,- perhaps pointed would be a better word, -and though most of his remarks were pregnant with taunt, boasting and abuse, and that damnable Southern air, accent and emphasis, that alone is enough to vex and irritate the best natured man in the world, I remained perfectly cool. I knew, as Doesticks* used to characterize one of his friends, that he was a "dam phool," for no man with any talents and education could be anything else and hold a commission under Jeff Davis, finally I said something, but his quick and wicked response made me so angry that I could not remember what I did say. "Why," said he, "I hope this war will last twenty years, for the moment I recover, I will be in it. Don"t you think i am weaned or cured by any kindness. No sir, not me I audit you doubt my sincerity, give me a musket and I'll shoot a man now!" I don't wish to be egotistical, but I certainly would be much obliged to the scholar who will point out to me any remarkable difference between the scriptural portraiture of Job's patience and my own sense on that occasion. I wanted, and who would not want, to say something? But my speech was choked with malice, vengeance and disgust. Yes. I wanted to call him a low, ungrateful, nigger suckled descendant of a once proud and heroic ancestry; and why I didn't do it, or something worse, is more than I shall at this time attempt to explain. I at once left the ungrateful, fiendish wretch, but not without several heart promptings to go back and its politely as politely, hate him to death. Comments, postscripts and doxologies are most respectfully solicited to the real, candid, and not overdrawn picture of a Southern rebel, wretch and devil. That's all.
       Yours &c,     See. See. Ess.

-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman, May 21, 1862



* pseudonym of writer Mortimer Q. Thomson.


Sunday, August 11, 2019

A Vermonter in New Kent - 1862 - Part I


Today starts a new series on the Civil War in New Kent with reports to the The Daily Green Mountain Freeman from their correspondent in the Vermont Brigade during the Peninsula campaign of 1862. I have selected those letters, of which there were more than a couple, that were composed in New Kent.


(Our War Correspondence.)

                                                From the Fifth Regiment.
                                                                        
                                                                                 Camp on the March, May 11, 1862
Mr. Willard: I was surprised this morning on referring to the map, to find that we were already north of Richmond. New Kent Court House is in sight from our camp; and the map shows that this place is a few miles north, and about thirty five east of Richmond, on a line of railroad to the Confederate city, the metropolis of everything military, congressional or diplomatic in rebeldom. But how soon we shall be doing police duty in that municipal city, depends very much upon military necessities and contingencies, and not a little upon the remarkable skedaddling gait and bottom of the fleeing army. Very many are confident that they intend to make a hold stand within their fortifications about that city, while others contend that they are forgetting out of Virginia and the Border States as fast as possible, and that they will not halt this side of Lynchburg; and I am partially inclined to this last opinion myself. One thing is certain, and, if you please, you can dignify the move with the most polite and scientific military term in an army lexicon, evacuating. They certainly have left this peninsula as precipitately as their limited means of transportation and legs could carry them. Our army once had occasion to "evacuate" Bull run, and l assure you that our troops in that panic left no more evidences of rout and flight, than they have left between here and Yorktown, to say nothing about their repulse and loss at Williamsburg. Every road and cross-road is filled with army plunder in the shape of wagons, gun carriages, hacks, buggies, guns, ammunition, old clothes, knapsacks, and last, but not least, deserters the happiest men I have seen in many a day. They had a "French furlough,"  their fighting was over, but ours was not ;and it would have pleased you to have seen their smiles and sparkling eyes as they gave these responses to the salutations of our advancing troops. "Their fighting was done," and instead of war, death and carnage, their hearts were swelling with hope of the endearments and enchantments of home. Envy, on an occasion like that, may not have been a very patriotic emotion, but who could help it Tired, foot sore and weary, plodding on in pursuit of the most ruthless army ever under arms, to see any body going home, started a train of sensations and associations that no patriotism can smother.
But other scenes soon quieted all feelings of the kind. We began to meet swarms of negroes, and at every "halt," to hear their stories. I wish that 1 could tell you some of them, but it cannot be done in any other way short of superior conversational powers, gesture and position. One old darkey tried his best to press his opinion about the two armies, and he excited much merriment among his listeners. "De seeesh go by yesterday, and dey look mighty bad; dey was dirty, ragged and hungry, and (leaning forward and speaking in an undertone.) i tells what, mass, I expects dey were a little scared. But you, Lordy Alassy, is a powerful army, and all best looking men I ever did see, and I hopes you catch 'em. O. my God. massa,  dey is Lad meu, mighty had! Dey think nothing of shooting and stabbing wounded men. O, dey is awful bad."' And so he went on in a strain that I cannot begin to give.
We arrived at this camp yesterday afternoon, and expected to march again this morning, but it being the Sabbath, Gen. McClellan rested his army, and, by so doing, has made another link in the chain of confidence, affection and esteem which binds the leader and his followers. We shall, however, be on the move early in the morning. I was intending to write more, expecting that I should have this day to myself, but as I have just been detailed for picket duty, 1 shall be obliged to wait for another opportunity. Should your readers ever have another opportunity to read a letter from your correspondent, it will probably be dated at Richmond.
It is but a short distance there, but a very steep grade, and it is not impossible that we shall be many days on the road. I hope, however, to reach there safely, but if 1 do not do so, I take this occasion to wish you all good-bye.

                                          Yours, See. See. Ess.


-The Daily Green Mountain Freeman, May 21, 1862


The Vermont Brigade, made up of five regiments of Vermont volunteers, was the only brigade in the Union army to be named after a state. It also holds the honor, as dubious as it might seem to some, of having the highest casualty rate of any brigade in the history of the United States Army. Almost 1,200 men of the brigade died during the war. 




Tuesday, August 6, 2019

What is a Burned County?



What is a "burned county"exactly? I use the term in the heading of this site but it has come to my attention that I have never bothered to really explain it. A "Burned County" is simply a rather more dramatic name for what the Library of Virginia calls a “lost records locality.” 

And what does the Library of Virginia say of these?

Numerous Virginia localities, most of them in the eastern part of the state, have suffered tremendous losses of their early records because of intense military activity (predominantly during the Civil War), courthouse fires, and/or natural disasters. At some point, almost everyone conducting genealogical or historical research will face the problem of finding information from a county or city described as a “lost records locality.” 
The Library of Virginia lists some 22 Virginia counties as having what they classify as "catastrophic" levels of loss. And 23 more at "considerable level" of loss.

The Civil War accounts for the greatest number of these catastrophic losses but not all. King William County's  loss came in the winter of 1885 originating probably from an untended stove. Appomattox lost its courthouse to  a devastating chimney fire in 1892. Buchanan County's records were destroyed by fire 1885 only to have later records damaged by flood in 1977. New Kent of course suffered the dual losses from the Great Fire in Richmond during the Confederate evacuation of 1865 and the early loss from the hand  of John Posey during his arson in the summer of 1787.


Saturday, August 3, 2019

From the New York Herald - April 1864

A recent newspaper find relating to  the "'In the long woods'- April, 1864" post of July 22.



Photo of replica of Confederate land "torpedo" from Civilwartalk.com 



MOVEMENTS ON THE PENINSULA.

Our Yorktown Correspondence.
Yorktown, Va., May 4, 1864.
An expedition moved up the James river on Monday last; but the rebels will not be able to learn much from this movement. They may fancy they understand the object of this advance: but they will find, when too late that a blow will be struck which will smash them. 
RECONNAISSANCE ON THE PENINSULA.
A number of reports having reached Williamsburg within the last few days of the concentration of a large rebel force on the south side of the Chickahominy, near Bottom's Bridge, Colonel B.F. Onderdonk, of the First New York Mounted Rifles, was ordered to make a reconnaissance in that direction with a detachment of his regiment, accompanied by the howitzer battery. The party left Williamsburg at daybreak yesterday morning moving along the old Richmond stage road, and meeting with no obstruction until they had passed Barharsmville.
PANIC AMONG THE INHABITANTS
The appearance of the force created the greatest excitement among the few natives still remaining on the debatable ground between the Chickahominy and Williamsburg, They were satisfied that the great advance had commenced, and that General Grant in person was in command. So imbued were they with this notion that the bushwhackers and guerrillas neglected to fire upon the party from the woods, and hastened forward as couriers to herald our advance. Almost every body begged for guards for their houses, to protect them from the expected negro infantry, whose advent they looked forward to with the utmost terror.
A REBEL PICKET.
On arriving at Barhamsville the party was divided, Captain Hill and his troop, commanded by Major Whelan, taking the York river road, while the main body pushed on towards Slatersville. The object of this division of force was to capture a large rebel picket stationed at New Kent Court House. As the main body approached Slatesrville the column was fired into by guerrillas, and after a hard run one of Hume's scouts was captured. The exchange of shots at this point probably gave the rebels notice of our approach, and further concealment was dispensed with.
NEW KENT COURT HOUSE.
Rebel outposts were one after the other ran down and captured, and the moment after the appearance of the head of our column the whole rebel force stationed at this point, which was drawn up in the road to receive us, turned their horses and fled. The whole advance under Major Hamilton pursued them some distance, and would undoubtedly have captured or secured the entire party had not orders for a halt been given. This step was rendered necessary by the necessity of saving the horses for further exertions.
THE REBEL FORCE AT BOTTOM'S BRIDGE
was found to have been greatly overestimated, being composed only of Holcome's South Carolina Legion. Their horse, for want of proper oats and feed, have become almost worthless. This force, however, has been recruiting up, and large numbers of fresh horse are dally expected with witch, according to one of the prisoners, it is proposed shortly to make a raid through our lines at Williamsburg.
THE PRISONERS
are all men of intelligence, and far superior to the class generally met with. The idea that the expedition was the advance of the main army seems to have entirety possessed them. One was captured who had witnessed our approach, and so reported us to the officer in command of the party, who transmitted the same intelligence to Richmond. There is no doubt that the panic existing in the rebel capital was considerably increased by the intelligence.
THE RETURN.
The object of the expedition having been completely accomplished, the party set out on their return, stopping to rest for a few hours at Barhamsville. We left the position after dark, and six miles further on, while passing through a dense wood, came quite unexpectedly upon a new adaptation of the favorite rebel war engine.
TORPEDOES IN THE ROAD.
the column had passed through the greater part of the woods, and were about entering the open country, when the advance came upon some wires lying across the road. Five or six loud explosions followed in rapid succession, and a number of horses and several of the men were hit. One horse and his rider were lifted several feet from the ground, and, strange to say, neither was hurt, Although it was very dark, and this kind of an attack was entirely unexpected, there was not the slightest sign of panic among the men. Orders were rapidly passed along the column, and the fire which now burst from a large body of guerrillas, concealed among the trees, was returned with such effect as to entirely silence the assailants. The column then moved on, and reached Williamsburg without further molestation, shorty after midnight. The strangest part of this affair is the fact that nobody was killed. The men and horse struck were but slightly wounded. The torpedoes are believed to have been twelve end thirty-two pound shells, and their explosion was distinctly heard at Fort Magruder, eighteen or twenty miles distant.
THE TREDEGAR IRON WORKS.
The rebel authorities are busily engaged in removing all the valuable machinery from the Tredegar Iron Works at Richmond to some point further south 

-The New York Herald, May 07, 1864




Monday, July 22, 2019

A Reposting- "In the long woods"- April, 1864

A re-posting from April 2014 with follow up information.




Wistar and staff, photo from the HR History site of the Daily Press

Expedition from Williamsburg and skirmish at Twelve-Mile Ordinary, Va.

Report of Col. Benjamin F. Onderdonk, First New York Mounted Rifles.

                                 HEADQUARTERS FIRST MOUNTED RIFLES,
                                     Near Williamsburg, Va., April 29, 1864.
COLONEL: I have the honor to report, pursuant to orders of the 27th instant, I marched at an early hour. Nothing of importance occurred until we reached the long woods beyond Twelve-Mile Ordinary, where we were fired on by scouts, one of whom (Davis) we captured. The next picket, near Slatersville, we charged to New Kent, capturing 3. The most reliable information I could gain was that there is no force at Tunstall's Station, on the Pamunkey. I could get no information. At Bottoms Bridge are 2,000 infantry and artillery, with Holcombe's battalion of cavalry. Nine field guns are constantly on duty. All the public fords on the river above Fords Bridge are blockaded and heavily guarded. A large force is stationed at a central point, from which re-enforcements can be thrown to any point above New Bridge in half an hour. Fifteen thousand can be brought to the defense of Bottoms Bridge in that time. Fords Bridge Ford, three days since, was only defended by a small picket. There is also a picket at Charles City Court-House. The camp of this force performing this duty (supposed to be the Forty-second Battalion) is 6 miles from the court-house, toward Richmond. At the latter place the people are in great excitement. The enemy are strengthening fortifications, and troops are constantly arriving from the direction of Charleston. I believe the Charles City Court-House road is the least defended. There is no force this side of Bottoms Bridge except one troop of the Holcombe Cavalry, at Cedar Hill, 2 miles beyond New Kent Court-House, to picket the roads, but they retreat at the shortest notice. We reached New Ken Court-House at 12.45; rested an hour and a half; returned to Barhamsville, where we halted two hours to feed and supper. Finding the horses very fresh, I decided to return.
In the long woods, 1 mile beyond Twelve-Mile Ordinary, we were attacked at 9 o'clock by an ambuscade (supposed to be the Peninsula Scouts); they had scattered torpedoes or shells, with friction fuses, in the road, six of which exploded in my column, the fire of the fuses making. a strong light, of which the enemy took advantage to fire on the men. I wheeled into line, and gave the enemy a volley, which caused them to leave, but they returned again and kept up a continuous fusilade on my entire column as it passed. I did not deem it advisable to follow them into the woods, as I had reason to suppose their infernal machines might do me more injury than the random fire. Although the shells exploded in the midst of the horses and men, strange to say but one man and two horses were slightly wounded with pieces of shell. My men behaved as coolly as on parade, although the uncommon style of warfare was sufficient to destroy the equanimity of the best troops. I should judge the machines to be about 20-pounder shells; they seemed to be charged with canister. Major Hamilton deserves particular notice for his coolness and gallantry through the entire trip. My thanks are due Maj. James N. Wheelan for volunteering to lead a small party around from Barhamsville to cut off the picket at New Kent Court-House, which only failed on account of the bad road, causing him to be half an hour late. I returned to camp 12.30 this morning.
Casualties: Corporal Feiling, Troop B, wounded in shoulder by shell (slightly).
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        B. F. ONDERDONK,
                          Colonel, Commanding Mounted Rifles.

Col. ROBERT M. WEST,
             Commanding Post.

                        


                                                             [Indorsement.]

                                  HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION,
                                                      April 29, 1864.
Respectfully forwarded.
 I further learn from deserters and prisoners (of which latter 4 were captured and sent down this morning) that there is a regiment of infantry (Fifty-third Virginia*) at White House; an accession of cavalry near Charles City Court-House; twenty pieces light artillery, both of brass and iron, at Bottoms Bridge, & c.; also that a wagon-load of torpedoes came down from Richmond four days since, in charge of Hume's Peninsula Scouts, for use on the Peninsula. road. They are not self-acting, but are discharged by cords attached, and managed by men concealed in the woods. The commanding general can infer from the above and the inclosed how far the enemy are expecting our advance by the Peninsula.
                                                    I. J. WISTAR,
                                                        Brigadier- General.


-The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.; Series 1- Volume 33


The Fifty-third Virginia Infantry* was of course the regiment  the Pamunkey Rifles(Co. B) and the Barhamsville Grays(Co. E) belonged to, as well as the Charles City Southern Guards (Co. K).

Twelve-Mile Ordinary would be in the general location of what is now called Anderson's Corner at the intersection of Routes 30 (New Kent Highway) and 60 (Richmond Road).


COMING UP-  From the New York Herald


Friday, July 5, 2019

Carnival of Mars- July 1863

A re-posting of a Gettysburg piece from two years ago with a few additions and changes.


New Kent County's two infantry companies in the Confederate Army, the Pamunkey Rifles and the Barhamsville Greys, were elements of the 53rd Virginia Infantry Regiment (along with the Charles City Southern Guards and the Mattaponi Guards[King William County]). The 53rd Virginia was part of Armistead's brigade of Pickett's division and as such was one of the lead elements in Pickett's Charge on the final day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Below, part of a much longer piece about his experiences during the war, are the recollections of Benjamin Lyons Farinholt (Pamunkey Rifles) about the battle.




Finally the supreme trial came, when, after having lost thousands at Chancellorsville and the Wilderness, and, as Gen. Lee aptly said, "lost our right arm" in the death of that great and inimitable Christian soldier, Stonewall Jackson, and after many other small battles — small only in comparison with larger engagements — we crossed once more the Potomac and took up our line of march for the fat pastures of Pennsylvania.

Our especial command, Pickett's Division, was engaged in the destruction of a railroad near Chambersburg by piling up the wooden ties and kindling them into huge fires, on which the iron rails were heated and bent, when, on the 2d of July, we received orders to prepare three days' rations, and in a few hours thereafter were on the road for Gettysburg, where we arrived about daybreak, after a hard march of twenty- eight miles, and took our place in line on the verge of the battle-field on the morning of that memorable 3d of July, 1863.

These two mighty armies, after rapidly concentrating their forces during the heavy fighting which had lasted for two days with thundering cannon, charge of infantry, and onset of cavalry, with varying fortune for advantage and position, and so far without any decisive result, now plumed their banners, reformed their lines, and confronted each other on this arena for the greatest battle of modern times — Lee with sixty-five thousand, Meade with one hundred and seventeen thousand, trained and tried veterans of two years' hard service. Thus, on this lovely midsummer day, when all nature in her luxuriant garb seemed wooing peace, was fought the battle which made the whole world stand aghast. Absolute chaos seemed to reign — the resounding boom of three hundred pieces of cannon, the incessant whir of bombs, the deafening explosion of whole caissons of ammunition, the whiz of canister and shrapnel, followed by the at first sharp crack and then steady roar of musketry, as regiments, brigades, and divisions would come to close quarters, forgetful of everything but this grand carnival of Mars.

Some idea may be gained of the concentration and intensity of the artillery fire when, within thirty minutes after the opening guns announced the battle commenced, the stretcher and ambulance corps had to be doubled to take off the wounded and dying. As the heavy artillery fire, kept up for hours, gradually ceased, it proved only a prelude to the general advance of our infantry all along the line. When, after advancing about a thousand yards under a withering fire from both infantry and artillery in front and a galling fire from several batteries stationed on Little Round Top Mountain, on our right flank, with unbroken ranks, save to close the gaps as men fell to the right and left, our decimated ranks pressed forward, delivering their fire in the very faces of the brave Federals, who defended their guns with great coolness and sheer desperation, but could not withstand our impetuous charge with the bayonet. Over we went into the Federal rifle-pits and over the re-enforced stone fence (called now the Bloody Angle), behind which the foe was entrenched. There, in a hand-to-hand engagement, where bayonet and pistol and butt of musket were liberally used, we captured all who wen killed or had not tied, virtually conquering and holding for a time the strongest position of the Federal line of battle on Cemetery Ridge, the very center and key of the Federal defense. Gen. Armistead claimed the day as ours, and, standing by one of the captured pieces of artillery, where the brave Federal Capt. Gushing had fallen, with his dead men and horses almost covering the ground, called on us to load and use the captured cannon on the fleeing foe.

Just then Hancock's command came forward with full ranks and fresh for the struggle, attacking us with great impetuosity and delivering against our much decimated ranks at close range at least fifty bullets to our five. Gen. Armistead was laid low by three wounds at their first fireGen. Kemper had also fallen in the charge, desperately wounded: Garnett had been killed, and three-fourths of our field and company officers were either killed or wounded. The writer was shot through the thigh, and Col. Martin, our gallant regimental leader, received a shot through the hip which almost proved fatal. Pandemonium complete, and for a time no quarter was asked nor given, and many on each side lost their lives. Many shots were fired at such close rang afterward to burn the clothes or flesh of the victims with powder. From sheer exhaustion and overpowering numbers, the remnant of Pickett's Division, the flower of Virginia's contribution to the Confederacy, yielded themselves captives, being literally surrounded and beaten into submission. Heth's Division, on our left, having given away, the enemy had advanced their columns so as to overwhelm us.
While we were receiving and returning as best we could the fire of Hancock's fresh regiments, at the extreme climax of this fight the writer saw a grandson of President Tyler, Robert Tyler Jones, himself already bleeding profusely from a serious wound, wave his pistol and threaten to shoot the first man who offered to surrender. 
What must have been the feelings of the handsome and brave Picket as he saw the greater portion of his division, of which he was justly so proud, killed, wounded, or captured, and only about six hundred return from the bloody charge. 
The writer was taken from the field with other wounded who were captured, and we were guarded for the night with a cordon of infantry and cavalry. In being taken to the rear we could see the terrible loss we had inflicted upon the Federal army, for every nook in the fence, every little stream of water to which they could crawl, every barn and shed, every yard and shade-tree were literally burdened with their dead, wounded, and dying. The writer remarked to a fellow officer, who was terribly disconsolate over our loss, that, while our division was nearly annihilated, it must have been the dearest victory ever purchased by any commander, and a few such, while crippling the Confederacy, would almost destroy the enemy. 
The next day we were taken to Westminster, Md., under a heavy guard, but not before Gen. Meade had ascertained that Gen. Lee would not again give battle, for really Meade was in no hurry to keep up the fight after so heavy a loss as his army sustained. Lee presented with his depleted ranks, after three days of this conflict, such a front as kept the Federal commander in doubt as to what he would do.


-Confederate Veteran Magazine, September 1897


From the site The Civil War in the East

The regiment was commanded by Colonel William R. Aylett and brought 435 men to the field. It woke at 3 a.m. on July 3 and moved to Seminary Ridge. In the afternoon it took part in Pickett’s Charge as the support brigade on the right flank of the attack, breaking the Union line at The Angle before being thrown back with heavy casualties. Casualty figures are incomplete, but around 30 men were killed. 
All of the field officers became casualties, with Colonel Aylett wounded, Lt. Colonel Rawley W. Martin wounded and captured, and Major John C. Timberlake capturedCaptain Henry Edmunds took command of the regiment. Colonel Aylett recovered from his wound by July 4 to take command of the brigade, then resumed command of the regiment on July 5. 
Officer casualties were high. Captain James Lipscomb was killed killed. Lieutenants Harvie Bray and William Burruss were mortally wounded and captured. Captains William Tredway and William Turner and Lieutenants Andrew Anderson and Evan Ragland were wounded. Captain Lyons Fairholt and Lieutenants Robert Ferguson and James Whitehead were wounded and captured. Captain John Latane and Lieutenants Robert Campbell, Hutchins Carter, Henry Coalter, James Harwood, John Ligon, Sylvester Richardson, Eugene Robinson, James Sale, and Joseph Walton were captured.

The names I have made bold and italicized are officers from New Kent or were serving in New Kent units.



Sunday, June 23, 2019

Artillery Duels and Cherry Picking- Forge Bridge 1862



Johann August Heinrich Heros von Borcke

The following day the work of saving, and destroying what could not be saved, out of the spoils at the White House, was continued, and then we moved off to join the army of General Lee, at that moment pursuing the enemy on his retreat to Harrison's Landing, on James river. We left behind one regiment as a guard over the property, estimated at millions of dollars in value, which we had collected to be transported to Richmond and the military depots of our army. While the operations I have just detailed had been going on under Stuart at the White House, General Lee had been very active-engaging the enemy and driving him further back every day. That we might regain the main body as speedily as possible, we marched for the remainder of the day without stopping in the hot sun, and encamped at nightfall upon the exact spot on the Chickahominy where, a few weeks before, we had made so narrow an escape. At daybreak next morning we received orders to move as rapidly as we might eight miles higher up the river, to ford it in the neighbourhood(sic) of Bottom's Bridge, and, falling upon the flank of the Federal army, to intercept its hasty retreat; but upon reaching this point we received counter orders, as the Federal army had already passed, and we rode back in full gallop to Forge Bridge, our starting-point. Here we found that the enemy, anticipating our movement, had posted artillery and sharpshooters in advantageous position on the river-bank, and we were accordingly received with a very determined resistance. Soon, however, Pelham came up with his horse-artillery, and, by a well-directed fire, opened a passage for us. The enemy retreated in precipitation, leaving their dead and wounded all along the course of their flight, and we were able to take but a very few prisoners. The sun was now pouring down with intense fervour(sic), and as our horses were wellnigh exhausted with our rapid marching and counter-marching, we were compelled to take a few hours' rest on the roadside. We lay down in a corner of the fence beneath the shade of some cherry-trees hanging full of their delicious fruit, the bunches unfortunately just a little too high to serve our parched mouths with grateful refreshment. Stuart and I were standing on the highest rail of the fence, trying with difficulty to pluck some of the cherries, when he laughingly said to me, “Captain, you charge the Yankees so well, why do you not attack this cherry-tree and bring it down?” Without hesitation I jumped from my elevated position, grasping the higher part of the trunk, and breaking down the tree, amid the loud cheers and laughter of the Staff and the soldiers around, who finished the spoil, now so easily to be gathered, in an incredibly short time.

-Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence, Heros von Borcke,


This was NOT during Stuart's famous ride around McClellan, but the later sweep through the county in late June of 1862 after McClellan's "change of base."