Pamunkey River

Pamunkey River
The Pamunkey River in 1864

Saturday, December 30, 2017

That Holiday Popping Sound . . .

(Originally posted Christmas 2013)

Holiday shooting? Christmas guns and "shooting in the New Year". . . it's older than you think.

We have quite a merry Christmas in the family; and a compact that no unpleasant word shall be uttered and no scramble for anything. The family were baking cakes and pies until late last night, and to day we shall have full rations. I have found enough celery in the little garden for dinner. 
Last night and this morning the boys have been firing Christmas guns incessantly- no doubt pilfering from their fathers cartridge boxes. There is much jollity and some drunkenness in the streets, notwithstanding the enemy's pickets are within an hour's march of the city

From A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States CapitalJohn Beauchamp Jones, 1866

 Robert Mitchell, Mayor, to the Governor
 Dec. 25, Richmond

Having a moment of time to spare, I take that opportunity of acknowledging the receipt of your letter enclosing the advice of our Council of State, bearing date the 3rd of last November, and yours of the 19th of same month. It did not come to hand at that date or for many days after. I have done all in my power to prevent that evil of unlawful Gaming within this city pointed out by you; besides it encourages the unguarded youth in Idleness vice and Immorality. You may depend on my doing all in my power to prevent such violation of our laws, and punish them when detected. 
Your favor of the 24th Inst. came very late to hand on the evening of that day. Had I rece'd it early in the day I might have had it more in my power to have its contents put in execution more compleat in order to comply with your wish and my own desire. On the 23rd Inst. I wrote Maj'r Wolfe to furnish a Serg't Guard out of the militia, in order to aid our city Patrol to patrol the city and its Jurisdiction during the Christmas Holydays, which has been complyed with, but it does appear to me to be impossible to prevent firing what is called Christmas Guns, being an old established custom, although there is an ordinance of the city police fixing a fine of 5s. for every offence of firing Guns within this city. The addition of the militia to the city patrol may prevent in part the evil pointed out to me in your letter.
 I am &c                    

- From Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Other Manuscripts: ... Preserved in the Capitol at Richmond, Virginia- Volume 9, Henry W. Flournoy, 1890

March 1655-6    6th of Commonwealth  
                                                           ACT XII 
WHEREAS it is much to be doubted, That the comon enemie the Indians, if opportunity serve, would suddenly invade this collony to a totall subversion of the same and whereas the only means for the discovery of their plotts is by allarms, of which no certainty can be had in respect of the frequent shooting of gunns in drinking, whereby they proclaim, and as it were, justifie that beastly vice spending much powder in vaine, that might be reserved against the comon enemie, Be it therefore enacted that what person or persons soever shall, after publication hereof, shoot any gunns at drinkeing (marriages and ffuneralls onely excepted) that such person or persons so offending shall forfeit 100 lb. of tobacco to be levied by distresse in case of refusall and to be disposed of by the militia in amunition towards a magazine for the county where the offence shall be comitted.

From The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, from the First Session of the Legislature, in the Year 1619William Waller Hening,ed. 1823

Monday, December 25, 2017

The Hub of the Universe

BELIEVED NEW KENT WAS THE HUB,- There is an amusing story told on a man living in New Kent, who thought New Kent was the greatest place on earth. A gentleman was in Richmond talking to a friend in a hotel office, telling of his trip abroad and where he bad been, The New Kent fellow listened as long as he could when suddenly he sprang to his feet and approached the talkers, and said "I say, sir; have you ever been, been to New Kent, sir? Well, well, sir: then you have never been nowhere, sir." Li Hung Chang places great stress on visiting Grant's tomb, but Virginians will tell him unless he has been to Lee's and Jackson's tombs he has "been nowhere, sir."

-Alexandria Gazette, 5 September 1896

Tuesday, December 19, 2017

With the "Monitors" in the Summer of 1863- IV

The conclusion of the story of the 127th New York and their time in New Kent in 1863 . . .

On Sunday, July 5th, part of the regiment was on picket on the Railroad, about two miles from camp, thirty-two men and an officer on each post, while others were taking up the rails and loading them on boats. General Dix ordered General Keyes to vigorously attack the enemy toward Bottoms Bridge, and notified him that if he failed to do so he would be superseded by General Gordon. The men on picket feasted on blackberries, which were very abundant, and which afforded an agreeable change from the salt horse and pork furnished by Uncle Sam; they also opened the ice house of a Confederate, who "left in too much of a hurry to be able to take his ice away with him." That portion of the regiment left in camp had nothing to do but amuse themselves, and the little negro, "Dick," with his brother, furnished an entertainment in the shape of plantation dances which brought them a harvest of small coins. 
On July 6th Confederate General Hill informed the Richmond War Office that a considerable battle had been fought on the North Anna, with musketry and artillery, and that a mere skirmish occurred at the Bridge over the South Anna, and that the Federals had retired across the Pamunkey River. The Richmond War Office also notified General Hill that for the purpose of removing the menace to Richmond, it was desirable that the Federals at White House should be dispersed, chastised or captured. But General Hill in reply stated that the streams were all flooded, the roads impassable for artillery, and that no movement against the Federals could be made. He also expressed the opinion that the Federals would probably change their base to Petersburg or Washington. 
On Tuesday, July 7th, General Getty returned to White House, having been unable to destroy the bridges over the Annas, but he reported having torn up the track of the Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad for several miles. The picket line was evacuated at midnight, and the 127th returned to camp in a heavy rain. After being furnished with rations, at daylight we started on our way back to Yorktown; the rain was still falling, and the roads were in fearful condition, the mud being deep and slimy, while the corduroy road was broken in places, making the marching most trying. Mud was thick enough to take the shoes off your feet, some of the men actually losing them from that cause. The regiment halted one hour at New Kent Court House for breakfast and rest, and then resumed the march through Slatersville, resting near Barhamsville for supper, after which we again took up the march till we arrived at Burnt Ordinary at 9 p.m. While on the march we had one alarm, and were ordered to halt and get our traps, i.e., knapsacks and haversacks, ready to throw off in case we were attacked; but the alarm proved false and the march was continued. General Gordon, who commanded our Division, says that we marched twenty-four miles through deep mud and over broken roads, while Colonel Boughton of the 143d gives the distance as twenty-eight miles through mud six inches deep. But this rapid marching, however difficult, had been necessary to prevent our rear guard being attacked by General Hill. Wood says: 'On this march one of the boys, being in the rear, came across a number of men from another regiment who tauntingly asked 'where is the 127th;' and the reply came 'ten miles ahead and marching like H---- .' "He also states that although the 127th were called "clam diggers" by the 144th, the main portion of the 127th came into bivouac with their colors, while the majority of the men in the other regiments had straggled badly, causing one of the officers to remark "that the 127th could march the 144th to death and then dig clams enough for supper!" It is the writer's impression that the 127th called the 144th "Bark peelers," because many of them had before enlistment worked at gathering bark for tanning leather.

-The History of the 127th New York Volunteers, "Monitors," in the War for the Preservation of the Union -- September 8th, 1862, June 30th, 1865
by McGrath, Franklin, ed

Friday, December 15, 2017

With the "Monitors" in the Summer of 1863- III

Lt. Col. Stewart Lyndon Woodford, of the 127th
The next morning (Saturday) at 8 a.m. the regiment marched for White House. The roads were still heavy with mud and marching was very tedious. The ground at White House has a beautiful flat two miles long, lying about thirty feet above the level of the river, where boats were passing up and down within fifty feet of the bank. This plantation was the property of the Widow Custis when Washington married her, and it was here that the first three months of their married life was spent. The house had been destroyed, but the ruins, including the large chimney, were plainly visible. 
At sunset the steamer John Brooks passed up the river loaded with troops; also a schooner which brought up a locomotive and freight cars. On the next day we had a regimental inspection, followed by a storm in the afternoon; seven transports with troops arrived, among whom were the 13th Indiana that was camped alongside our regiment at Suffolk; our men cooked supper for them, and their officers were entertained by ours. Troops continued arriving all day. Rain had fallen every day from the 24th, when the regiment left the Six Mile Ordinary. The confederate Adjutant General Cooper advised General Lee that the concentration of 20,000 to 30,000 Federal troops on the Peninsula, either for the purpose of assaulting Richmond or interrupting Lee's communication, rendered it impracticable to carry out General Lee's wish to have an auxiliary force concentrated at Culpeper, Virginia. 
On the 29th a conference of Generals Dix, Keyes, Terry, Getty, Gordon, Harlan and Foster was held, at which Colonel Spear of the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry reported that in his raid he had destroyed the Fredericksburg and Richmond Railroad Bridge over the South Anna and had captured General Fitz-Hugh Lee and one hundred prisoners; he also reported that the available force protecting Richmond was from twelve to fourteen thousand men. It was then decided that the Richmond fortifications could not be successfully attacked with our force of 20,510 men, and it was decided to request General Halleck to transfer the troops to General Meade's army. 
On June 30th it was still raining, and troops were still arriving; the regiment was mustered for pay and the lost shoulder scales were charged to the men. On July 1st General Getty with 10,000 troops started to seize and destroy the railroad bridges over the North and South Anna Rivers, while General Keyes with about 6,000 men was to cause a diversion in his favor by vigorously attacking the enemy at Bottoms Bridge, with orders to maintain his position two or three days; while General Gordon, reinforced by Spinola's Brigade, was ordered to Tunstall’s Station as a reserve for both columns. The 127th were kept on guard at White House with pickets well thrown out, all the troops but our brigade having marched with these two expeditions. July 2d was very hot; at 4 p. m. firing was heard from the direction of Bottoms Bridge and continued for half an hour and at intervals during the evening and through the night there was both heavy musketry and cannon firing. 
General Keyes, who had been ordered to vigorously attack the enemy at Bottoms Bridge and to hold his position for two or three days, made the attack, but afterwards fell back, and the Confederate General Hill reported to the Richmond War Office that the Yankees had been driven back toward White House, and offered to send up Cooke's Brigade, 2,751 strong, to reinforce the troops defending the bridges over the Annas. It was therefore evident that General Keyes' attack was of little value as a diversion in favor of General Getty. 
On July 3d the men of our regiment on picket were relieved at 3 a.m. and were ordered to pack up and be ready to move; wagons were loaded and horses kept harnessed, and it was rumored that we were going to Baltimore or Washington; but after waiting all day marching orders were countermanded. 
July 4th, which was another very hot day, was observed by firing a national salute at noon, while the sound of distant guns indicated that General Getty was attacking the bridges over the Annas. Troops in camp kept pretty quiet during the day, but at night we were allowed to build a large fire and addresses were made by General Gordon, Colonel Gurney and Lieutenant Colonel Woodford. General Gordon read a dispatch from General Halleck announcing General Meade's victory over Lee at Gettysburg, and our drum corps played patriotic airs.

-The History of the 127th New York Volunteers, "Monitors," in the War for the Preservation of the Union -- September 8th, 1862, June 30th, 1865
by McGrath, Franklin, ed

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

With the "Monitors" in the Summer of 1863- II

Part two of an account of the 127th New York Volunteers on the Peninsula in 1862 . . .

On June 14th Colonel Porter of the 40th Massachusetts reported that he had captured Diascund Bridge without serious opposition, and General Halleck the same day informed General Dix that General Lee's army was in motion up the Shenandoah Valley, and directed him to concentrate all of his available force and threaten Richmond, to seize and destroy the railroad bridges over the North and South Anna Rivers, and to do the enemy all the damage he could. General Dix was unable to promptly comply with this order, as the transports necessary to transfer the portion of his force from Norfolk were being used at Acquia Creek by the War Department; still the probability is that the delay made little difference, as General Lee had on the 12th ordered General Hill to move troops forward, and protect the bridges over the two Annas, and also to protect the approaches to Richmond. 
On the 15th the weather was again oppressively warm. The pickets brought in about a dozen prisoners, suspected of bush-whacking, and a wounded Union cavalry man, who had been fired upon from ambush, while picking berries, passed through camp on his way to the rear. The 16th was another very warm day, and as the regiment was camped in an open field with no other shelter than a rail fence the heat was very oppressive. Rations, which consisted of hard tack, pork and coffee, were getting scarce, and the visit of the paymaster afforded no relief, as nothing could be purchased in the neighborhood. 
On the 18th General Dix ordered General Gordon to make his troops as comfortable as possible, and on the 19th we were glad to get our knapsacks and shelter tents which had been left behind at the Williamsburg camp. The regiment had been since the nth in bivouac under such shelter as could be improvised by the use of fence rails and rubber blankets, and the officers had not only fared the same as the men in this respect, but some had been glad to share the men's rations. The Field and Staff occupied a four foot high shelter made of fence rails and rubber blankets, and the dignified Lieutenant Colonel and the gruff Major could, at times, be seen crawling in and out on their hands and knees. The whole situation tended to laxity in dignity, and the customary lectures to delinquent officers, which were usually followed by the "good morning'" style of dismissal, were for the time omitted. The writer recalls seeing General Schimmelfennig and Staff crawl out at reveille from among the bivouac of the rank and file when the troops first reached Newport News on their way to South Carolina, but he never again had the pleasure of seeing any of the Field officers of the 127th regiment roughing it as the enlisted men had to do, though they enjoyed that privilege when the regiment marched up the Charleston and Savannah Railroad from Pocotaligo to Charleston. The shelter tents were received and pitched not any too soon, as on the night following their arrival it rained very hard, and we were glad to have even this partial protection. 
The Confederate Field returns on the 20th showed 10,176 troops "for duty" in the defenses of Richmond, and on the 21st the Confederate Secretary of War notified General Hill that the Federals were concentrating 20,000 troops at Yorktown for an advance on Richmond, but General Hill expressed the opinion that the Federals were going to attack the bridges over the Annas. On the 23d our regiment was ordered to pack our woolen blankets into the knapsacks that they might be sent back to Fort Magruder to be stored. General confusion now prevailed in camp; cooks were preparing rations, and those men who had received boxes from home were distributing their contents among their best friends, that the good things of this life, which they had just received, might be put where they would do the most good. 
At 11 p.m. the regiment fell in and marched about eleven miles, reaching Barnesville(Barhamsville?) about three o'clock the next morning (24th), where we bivouacked near the camp of the 144th N. Y. We did not break camp until the 25th, and the men made themselves as comfortable as possible by the use of small pine poles and shelter tents. Colonel Spear with eight hundred Pennsylvania and two hundred and fifty Illinois and Massachusetts Cavalry started out to attempt the destruction of the Virginia Central Railroad bridge over the South Anna River. 
It rained hard during the night of the 24th and the day of the 25th, and while other troops were still marching by the regiment remained in bivouac until 4.30 p. m., when we were ordered to fall in and follow them. After marching about 1 1/2 miles we came to a large piece of woods near Ropers Church, in which the other troops were camped and where we also bivouacked. It was raining hard and the outlook for a comfortable night was not promising, but the shelter tents were quickly pitched and floored with a rubber blanket, and large fires were soon started at which the savory coffee furnished by Uncle Sam was cooked, and the groups of three could soon be seen sitting in the edge of their tents laughing and joking as they ate their supper of coffee, crackers and pork. The ground outside of the tents was speedily ditched enough to keep out the running water, and it was not long after supper before the men were dreaming of the "good time coming." General Gordon in commenting upon the cheerful bearing of the troops under such gloomy circumstances said it indicated the ability of the American soldier to adapt himself to his surroundings. 
The same day the Confederate Secretary of War notified General Hill that the Federals had landed six thousand troops at White House, and he ordered Jenkins' Confederate Brigade (2,632 strong) up to Richmond. At an early hour on the morning of the 26th, the regiment with the rest of the column broke camp and in a drizzling rain resumed the march toward the White House; as the roads were heavy with mud and the clothing and equipment damp, the march was very trying. At 3 p.m. we passed New Kent Court House on our left and arrived at Cumberland Landing on the Pamunkey River about 6 p.m. and bivouacked with many other troops already there.

-The History of the 127th New York Volunteers, "Monitors," in the War for the Preservation of the Union -- September 8th, 1862, June 30th, 1865
McGrath, Franklin, ed


Saturday, December 9, 2017

Governor McAuliffe Makes Historic preservation Announcement at Chickahominy Tribal Center

Governor McAuliffe Announces Nearly $12.5 Million in Land Conservation Grants~Projects will protect and interpret at-risk historic sites benefitting the James and York Rivers~
PROVIDENCE FORGE – Governor McAuliffe announced today nearly $12.5 million in grants from the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation (VLCF) to nine projects. The awards will protect almost 4,000 historically significant acres and fund new interpretive tools at multiple sites. Funding was provided by Dominion Energy as part of an $89.5 million agreement to mitigate the adverse impact to historic resources of the Surry-Skiffes Creek Transmission Line. 
“Virginia is home to a wealth of historical treasures, and these grants from the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation will improve visitor experiences and enhance educational opportunities at some of our country's most significant sites,” said Governor Terry McAuliffe. “I am especially pleased that a significant grant from this funding will go towards land preservation that will finally provide the Chickahominy Indian Tribe with permanent access to the river.” 
A grant to the Chickahominy Indian Tribe will support the acquisition of tribal lands along the James River, known to them as the Powhatan. This land, to be permanently protected under a conservation easement, will be the first held by the Chickahominy on one of its home rivers in centuries. It will provide a beautiful, appropriate site for the Chickahominy to celebrate and preserve its heritage and traditions, and for all Virginians to better appreciate their important place in the Commonwealth’s past, present, and future.   
VLCF will also provide a grant to support the future acquisition of Belmead on the James, a historic plantation constructed around 1845. The plantation was converted into a school which educated more than 15,000 African American and Native American students before closing in the 1970s. 
“As Virginians, we play a special role in the stewardship of our national story,” said Secretary of Natural Resources Molly Ward. “The projects receiving funding today protect vulnerable habitats while preserving crucial parts of our collective history, including the under-represented history of Virginia’s Tribes.” 
In addition to these projects, grants will fund the land acquisition of five significant battlefield sites associated with both the Revolutionary War and the Civil War, including expanded protections for Yorktown Civil War Battlefield, funding to support the acquisition of Malvern Hill Farm by the Capital Region Land Conservancy, and the purchase of multiple parcels by the Civil War Trust. Two additional grants will be used to develop a new exhibit at Endview Plantation and create a digital model of Fort Crafford, which is part of Fort Eustis in Newport News.

-release Governor's office, December 7, 2017

Friday, December 8, 2017

With the "Monitors" in the Summer of 1863- I

Find below the beginning of an account of the movements of the 127th New York Volunteers(the "Monitors")across New Kent during June and July, 1863 . . .

At 4 p.m. the men embarked on the steamer Belvidere, and, arriving at Yorktown at 7 p.m., marched to a point about one mile to the rear of the town and there pitched their shelter tents. The camp was named "Howland," presumably in honor of Captain Howland, the former Commandant of Company A. The same day the Richmond War Office, which had been keeping a close watch on our troops at West Point, notified General Lee of the evacuation of the place. As soon as we were fairly in camp at Yorktown drills and camp routine were resumed, and on the 5th and 6th of June the regiment participated in a Brigade drill, and was also drilled at target firing. This camp was situated about half a mile from the river and the same distance from the village of Yorktown, a place consisting of a few houses, the most of which are venerable looking; the country about is level and swampy, and gives evidence of the desolation of war; the river is quite salt here and abounds in fish, oysters, clams, crabs, etc., which were quite a treat to us (when we were lucky enough to get any of them). June 3d the whole of Company H went in bathing in salt water for the first time since leaving old Long Island's "sea-girt shore." At 10 a.m. of the 9th the 127th Regiment with two brigades of infantry, six batteries of light artillery and some cavalry left Yorktown and marched to within one and one-half miles of Williamsburg, and then filed to the right and camped, about 6 o'clock, within sight of the York river. The day had been excessively warm, and the roads very muddy. The next morning we pitched our shelter tents, expecting to remain at the new camp a few days. 
The Confederates were still closely watching every movement of our troops, and the Richmond war office notified General D. H. Hill that the Federals were about to make a movement to cut the railroad between Richmond and the Rappahannock, and perhaps march upon Richmond, and General Lee advised that General Cook's brigade be sent to Hanover Junction, and Jenkins' brigade to the crossings of the Chickahominy. 
General Gordon having received orders from General Dix to move his Division forward as far as seemed prudent, with a view of locating the Confederates and keeping them on the move, the Division left Williamsburg, soon after daybreak of the nth, in light marching order, leaving tents standing, and taking only rubber and woolen blankets, 60 rounds of ammunition and three days' rations, the march being up the old Richmond post road, the 127th New York leading the way. From about ten miles beyond Williamsburg the right wing of the regiment was deployed as skirmishers. At 3 p.m. column halted for dinner at Burnt Ordinary, about twelve miles from Williamsburg. At 4 p.m. the 127th New York, accompanied by a company of cavalry and a battery of artillery, were ordered forward toward Diascund Bridge, in front of which a body of Confederates was supposed to be posted in a strong position. The left wing of the regiment, consisting of Companies A, D and I, were deployed as skirmishers. After marching about four miles, as the regiment approached Edward's Mill, several men were seen to run from the mill toward the bridge. After crossing the bridge over the mill stream, one section of artillery and Company H were left to guard the bridge and about one mile further on Company B were posted at a cross road. The balance of the regiment pressed forward for about one-fourth of a mile, when the skirmish line was met by a brisk fire from the Confederates concealed in the woods, and by the time the rest of the troops reached the top of the hill the firing became general. 
Private Bookstaver of A was wounded in the first fire and taken to the rear, as the regiment moved to the front. The musketry fire was kept up by both sides for about an hour, but no further advance was made, and as darkness was approaching and the section of artillery could not be brought into position the regiment was withdrawn and returned to Burnt Ordinary about 11 p.m., and there bivouacked, the men being thoroughly tired and thirsty, as the day had been hot and the water scarce. 
The march had extended over 26 to 28 miles, and when the regiment finally halted, the men were glad to roll themselves in their blankets without waiting to find particularly soft spots to lie on, and they did not permit the shots fired by the pickets at some stray sheep to disturb them. 
On this day Confederate General Jones reported the Federal troops, between two thousand and twenty-five hundred strong, advancing as far as the Burnt Ordinary, and General Wise also reported the Federals in force at Hickory Neck Academy and also on the Diascund Road
While on the skirmish line in the advance toward Diascund Bridge, the second platoon of Company H lost their way and was unable to join the regiment until the following afternoon. While wandering around they visited several houses, possibly with a view of adding to their store of rations, which was not especially inviting. 
Learning at one house that the old man '"had just returned from Richmond," and was at a neighbor's half a mile distant, Corporal Hunting and four men were sent to find him. Each man had his position assigned him, the approach of the house being made from the rear. As the Corporal came in front of the house two supposed Confederates dodged in. He, the Corporal, soon saw a double barreled gun pointed at him from a window, to avoid the contents of which he slipped behind an out-building. The gun was fired either at him or at one of the men, and, thinking they had run into the picket line, the squad hastened back to the main body. Then they learned that Jacob Reese¹ was missing, and recollecting having heard a cry they concluded that he had received the shot fired. 
Saturday, the 13th, a force from the 4th Delaware Cavalry² was sent to the house, which they burned, and the body of Reese was recovered. He had been shot through the body and had lived three hours and had been buried by the negroes on the place. Men were detailed to recover the body and give it a soldier's burial, the place of interment being near a church about two miles from our camp. The scouts of Holcomb's Confederate Cavalry reported that they killed one of the Federals at Dr. Jennings', whose residence it probably was from which the shot was fired. 
Then on the march from Williamsburg a point was reached where a fine stream of clear, cool water flowed alongside the road, and several men quickly stepped out of line and dipped their tin cups in the stream; but they were ordered back in words more forcible than polite. The captain having resumed his place, the temptation proved too great to resist, and the attempt to quench the thirst was again made, and in some cases met partial success, which even the presence of a dead horse discovered in the stream a few feet further on did not materially mar. The water was wet and had cooled the parched throats, and we had long since ceased to be fastidious in supplying our various wants. 
The next morning found the men footsore and ready to rest. The bivouac was moved into the edge of a piece of woods, and most of the men were soon taking advantage of a stream flowing near the camp, washing and getting in trim for the next movement. At 2 o'clock the regiment was marched back four miles to Airy Plains, near the Six Mile Ordinary, where it bivouacked without, however, any shelter except what could be improvised with the blankets. 

¹Jacob Reis, enlisted, August 22, 1862, at the age of 22 in Greenport, New York

²There was no 4th Delaware Cavalry, most likely this was the 4th Delaware Infantry which was on the Peninsula at the time.

Burnt Ordinary= Toano
Six Mile Ordinary= Norge

-The History of the 127th New York Volunteers, "Monitors," in the War for the Preservation of the Union -- September 8th, 1862, June 30th, 1865
by McGrath, Franklin, ed