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Tuesday, December 4, 2018

New Kent's Woman Yeoman


Personal and Brief Items Gathered Prom Mountains to Seashore.
Mrs. J.R. Taylor and her daughter, Miss Lucy Taylor, passed through town on last Saturday afternoon for their home at "Eltham." New Kent. It will be remembered that Miss Taylor, after a spell of influenza in Norfolk, where she was enrolled as a yeoman*, in making an effort to reach her home on the Norfolk and Western train about two weeks ago fainted. When she reached Petersburg she was placed in the care of the Red Cross, and was taken to a hospital, where she was attended by physicians, who sought in vain to find out something about the curious malady that robbed this young lady of her memory for two weeks. There was nothing about her belongs  that could enlighten her attendants. In the meantime her parents, having heard that she had left Norfolk for home, started out to search for her. Suddenly her memory returned, and her parents were notified, and she was restored to them. The papers said she was from West Point. West Point is her post-office station, but her home is at historic "Eltham," New Kent, Va.

Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10 November 1918


*Find here the link to an interesting piece about the women yeomen of the First World War.


Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Gallow's Ball XII - Dining on the Scaffold

The Shepherdstown Register adds some extra details to the strange scene.
Of course whether they are true or nineteenth century journalistic license is debatable.


DOUBLE EXECUTION
The two negroes, Pat Smith, aged twenty-four, and Julius Christian, aged twenty-two, who murdered Colonel Jno. Calvin Lacy in New Kent county, Virginia, were hung March 25th, at New Kent Courthouse, Va., in the presence of an immense crowd of white and colored people. The condemned men left the Henrico jail, in Richmond, where they had been lodged for safe-keeping, at five o'clock in the morning, in charge of Sheriff Royster and and ample guard. They slept well at night, and set out for the scene of the execution, which is twenty-five miles distance from Richmond with the utmost good humor. They dressed themselves in new store clothes, and as they walked along the street on their way to the New York River depot they laughed and talked, and seemed

AS HAPPY AS A BIG SUN FLOWER.
They had been provided with money by their relatives, and this they spent for sandwiches and cigars at the lunch counter in the depot. As the train puffed away the murderers poked their heads out of car windows and gave three cheers for Richmond. There were a few negroes, a half dozen white sporting men, ten or twelve fancy girls and twelve reporters on the cars, who went to see the work well done. At eleven o'clock the party arrived at the Court House, it being several miles from the railroad station to that place. The prisoners were taken into the Court House building, where they shrouded themselves, and were prayed for by a colored Deacon. About 11:30 they were led to the gallows. They said they had a request to make, which they begged would be complied with. They wanted to

TAKE THEIR LAST MEAL ON THE SCAFFOLD.
The sheriff consented to this whim, and the execution was delayed some what on this account. The prisoners said they only wanted coffee, cornbread and molasses, but they wanted a good deal of it, such as it was. Accordingly a colored woman in the neighborhood went to work and prepared the grub. In the meantime the murderers sat composedly, the observed of all observers. About twelve o'clock the repast was ready. A rickety old table and two chairs were loaned for the occasion. These were placed on the scaffold, and on the table were a pot of steaming coffee, two pones of corn bread, a rung of sorghum, plates, spoons, &c. Smith took his coffee without cream, but Christian called for some of the lacteal fluid. The cook had forgotten to send any, and after a little delay it was brought. Then the negroes began their meal. It took them nearly one hour to eat it.

THEY LAUGHED A GREAT DEAL,
And when they had cleared the dishes they remarked; "The old woman gets up a first rate dinner." Then they each smoked a cigar, and at one o'clock they arose on the scaffold, and with grinning faces confessed t he crime for which they were condemned, and said they would go straight to glory. At the close, and just before the ropes were lied, they requested the crowd to sing the negro hymn, "Peace, peace, on the golden shore." Christian had a fine tenor voice, and Smith sung a pretty fair bass, and after the tune had been raised they both joined in with a good will. All of the colored spectators sang, and altogether it was a musical feature of the show that might have been enjoyed by disinterested spectators had not the occasion been such a serious one. At 1:15 o'clock all was ready. Smith and Christian said "Farewell," in a loud voice, and the prop was knocked from under them. They swung off well, and only uttered slight groans. Smith weighed 190 pounds, and his neck was broken; Christian weighed 150 and was strangled. The remains were cut down in a half hour after the pulse ceased to beat, and were turned over to their friends.

THE GALLOWS BALL.
"The negroes came in immense numbers. It was a gala day for them, and they were all in a holiday attire. The field in which the men were hanged looked like a country fair. Booths were erected. An enterprising Yankee had a side show and educated pig, and itinerant musicians enlivened the occasion. After the hanging the crowds of whites went away, but the negroes hung about the field and around the shallow graves of the felons until dark. They had determined to have a ball, but according to some superstition among them it could not begin until after the midnight hour. A large barn in the field was swept clean by hundreds of willing hands. At 12 o'clock it was crowded. 
On a small stage in a corner the stand for the musicians was placed, which was occupied by four banjo players and one fiddle. In the middle of the room was another stand, upon which the man who called out the figures stood. It was a weird scene. Boys stood in the corners of the room with pine knot torches, which filled the place with smoke, and made a murky light.
At 12:15 the festivities began. Peter Johnson, a burly tobacco hand, occupied the stand in the middle of the room, and sang out in stentorian voice: "Choose your partners." The strangely made up orchestra struck up "The Mississippi Sawyer," a wild Ethiopian air, and the dancing began. As the music went on, the musicians and dances grew wild and wilder, until they shouted and sang as though possessed by the devil. Such exclamations as "I could die dis moment" "Oh, Lord, how happy I is" and the like were heard, especially from the women. At about two o'clock Lucinda Macon, an old voudou(sic) negress, suddenly made her appearance in the barn. The musicians and dancers stopped in terror. The old hag slipped into the middle of the room, and then began a series of strange incantation scenes. The "trick" doctress* was dressed in an old blue and white checkered dress, and had in. her hand a large bundle, tied up in a red handkerchief. She opened it, and after muttering a lot of gibberish, in what the negroes say here was an African dialect, she said she had the rope with which the man were banged, and that after she had touched any bit of it that piece would secure the possessor against the evil designs of any person who tricked them or poisoned them. She cut it up in small bits, and over each bit she muttered and sprinkled something from an old jog, and then 'she sold it for fifty cents. The rush for I these pieces of rope was great. The men fought for them.
This ceremony was kept up until 2:30 a.m. The rope did not go around, and when this became known those who did not get a piece acted like fiends,and begged the hag for a thread only. She told them that nothing else would effect the charm except small particles of the clothing in which the men were buried. A large party then started off to. the grave underneath the gallows, for the purpose of disinterring the bodies and bringing back the garments. They soon returned in horror to the ball room, swearing that they had seen the two men who were hanged walking around the grave. The hag added to the excitement by declaring at the top of her voice, singing cut the words, that Smith and Christian had not died, because she had given them a charm. The secret is, that the visit of the dancers to the grave frightened Off two resurrectionists who were after the bodies for the doctors. The dancing and singing were kept up until 5 o'clock. It was announced by the voudou doctress that all who danced at the gallows ball would be able to dance as long as they lived, no matter if they lived to be ninety one"

-Shepherdstown Register, April 05, 1879


* hoodoo man or conjuror

Saturday, November 10, 2018

Gallow's Ball XI - "After the Dance of Death"

Where in we first come across the name of this series . . .


LETTER FROM RICHMOND

 . . .
The strangest circumstance connected with the execution in New Kent yesterday has been heard or here to day. For want of a better name it may be called a "gallows ball." So it was. Hundreds of negroes remained around the place after the execution had taken place and when the shades of night set in they had a grand ball in honer of the occasion. The ball took place in an old barn near by, the music being furnished by three banjos and a fiddle. The place was lit up by pine knot torches, and the dance was begun to the wild notes of that grand old Ethiopian melody, "The Mississippi Sawyer." Virginia has furnished the greatest men of the United States, and now being tired of this sort of thing and aiming to do something original, she strikes out on a now track and caps the climax with a gallows ball after the dance of death. A gallows ball! Ha! ha! what strange visions rise at the words? What shadowy forms and horribly contorting figures come in view phantom-like and disgusting. After the poor devils swing off by a hempen rope the darkey fiddler yells out "swing corners," and the ball commences. After the two murderers are lead up to the gibbet, the musician yells out amid trilling banjos and shrieking fiddle, "lead up four," and the dance goes on. The darkies of New Kent take the lead now. The ball was kept up until a late hour, and Pat. Smith, whose body lay in a shallow grave near by, must have slept soundly or else he would have been shaken out by the moving feet of the crowd dancing around him.
STRONGBOW

-Alexandria Gazette, March 27, 1879


Monday, November 5, 2018

Gallow's Ball X - From The New York Herald

A more sensational, and yet perhaps more honest, account of the double execution.



BRUTAL MURDER AVENGED!
Patrick Smith and Julius Christian Hanged in Virginia.
CALLOUSNESS OF THE CULPRITS.
Speedy Retribution Follows the Killing of J. C. Lacy.
[BY TELEGRAPH TO THE HERALD]
New Kent Court House, Va., March 25, 1879.
The brutal butchery of John C. Lacy on the 17th of January last was avenged here to-day by the execution of his murderers, Patrick Smith and Julius Christian. No tragedy ever before created such terrible indignation in New Kent county. The prisoners have been in the jail of Henrico county, as there is none here, but were brought from Richmond this morning. Leaving that city by the cars at six o'clock, they were met at Summit Station, on the York River and Chesapeake Railroad, where they were placed in a wagon and surrounded by an armed guard of twenty men. On the way the prisoners chatted and very freely discussed the crime for which they were on their way to pay the penalty, frequently laughing when they explained the dexterity with which they caught Lacy, gashed his throat and finally dispatched him. They seemed to gloat over the last appeal he made for mercy, and Smith was boisterously merry in describing the death struggle of the victim.

UTTERLY UNREPENTANT
It was difficult to understand whether they were the most hardened and abandoned criminals or merely ignorant brutes. They smoked cigars with an evident relish, and begged for ten cent pieces of silver, which they said they wished "to keep." One of those who accompanied them remarked that he felt sore from riding, to which Julius Christian responded "I'll be sorer than dat to-morrow by dis time," and he laughed heartily at the horrible sally. From early in the morning crowds were thronging into the village on horseback, foot and in every conceivable sort of vehicle. The town by ten o'clock was filled with people of all classes, colors and conditions, and the rum sellers did an excellent business. Negroes as well as whites wore their best, and all of them impressed the observer with the idea that they were intent on enjoying the day and making the most of the occasion. Not a soul seemed to  regard the coming tragedy in the light of a terrible example of vengeance meted out by the laws of both God and man for murder.

MAKING A FETE DAY.
In keeping with the merriment, which seemed general, an enterprising manager had a good sized marquee erected in view of the scaffold, in which he gave a combination exhibition of burnt cork opera, a Punch and Judy show, an educated hog, several performing monkeys and a limited menagerie of other small animals. This was liberally patronized during the entire-day. The performances commenced at nine A.M., so that the many colored populace were amply supplied with light comedy on the one hand and horrible tragedy on the other. 
The scaffold was erected on the brow of a hill, with a thin growth of pine trees, to the east of the town and about one thousand yards outside its limits. It was decent in appearance, but not perfect in construction. The fall allowed was only a little over four feet, and it seemed as if it was intended to strangle its victims. Their feet would necessarily come into proximity with the earth.

ARRIVAL OF THE CONDEMNED.
A little before eleven o'clock A. M. the wagon with the criminals and its escort of mounted men, which had been augmented to about one hundred, entered the village, and a rush was made for it. The rum mills, oyster carts, booths, lunch stands and combination show were promptly deserted for the more important spectacle of the doomed men. As quickly as possible they were taken from the wagon and conducted to the Court House, around the door of which the mob were struggling, to effect an entrance. By courtesy of Commonwealth Attorney Lacy and Judge Christian, the Herald correspondent gained admittance and found the criminals answering the hundred questions propounded to them about the murder. No time was lost however, and they were soon shroud in two long sable robes with frilled and escalloped collars after the Elizabethan style.
FAREWELLS.
They had written letters of farewell, one to his poor mother and the other to his sister, and they exonerated as far as it was in their power old Andrew Whitney from any complicity in the murder. Once more they were conducted to and seated in the wagon, this time in two black coffins, and again the procession formed and took its final march to the gallows. Following the wagon was the Judge, Commonwealth Attorney and other officials and privileged persons. At this time the morbidly curious crowd flocked frantically across the ploughed(sic) ground to the scaffold, in the vicinity of which large numbers found eligible positions in the tree tops. Observing this Patrick Smith exclaimed as they neared the scene. "De good Lord, look at the folks like buzzards in the trees." There was nothing solemn or impressive in the proceedings.

ON THE DROP.
Arrived at the scaffold the condemned men ascended the steps leading to the drop with a firm and steady tread. They then made addresses, in which, as usual, they both claimed to have made their peace with their Maker. Christian, who was on the right, seemed to become fervent and eloquent. They reiterated statements previously made by them about the murder substantially as given below. Pat Smith made an elaborate statement about the tragedy, giving in detail the part taken by both of them, and during which portion in the crowd uttered imprecations on them. When they were concluded the Sheriff read the death warrant, and at ten minutes to twelve o'clock A.M. they were pinioned and the block caps drawn over their face. At twelve M. at a signal the prop supporting the drop was drawn out and the two murderers fell. The rope that held Christian slipped and his feet nearly touched the earth. The nooses being loosely adjusted the knots swung around to the backs of their necks. 
Smith's fall was a little over three feet. He barely quivered, but Christian struggled convulsively for several moments. Smith's neck is said to have been broken. Christian died of strangulation. After remaining suspended for twenty minutes life was pronounced extinct and the bodies were cut down. They were placed in two coffins and buried in a hole dug for the purpose in front and to the left of the scaffold. The crowd then hurried back to resume the amusements in the village.

HISTORY OF THE CRIME
Soon after daylight on the morning of Saturday, January 1 last, the body of John C. Lacy, of this county, was found on the road leading from Cedar Grove to Long Bridge, and within one and a half miles of his own home. Cedar Grove is about twenty miles front Richmond on the forge road, and Lacy's residence was two miles below Cedar Grove. He had driven to the city the day previous in a mule cart to dispose of some hogs, and was evidently murdered and robbed on his return home. When discovered the body presented a ghastly appearance, and the surroundings indicate that a terrible struggle had taken place. The head was nearly severed from the trunk; a large portion of the throat seemed to have been actually torn out. Several gashes and cuts were found on the skull, and about the arms and breast. The features were distorted, clotted with blood, and mutilated, and the chest, arms and bands were covered with gore. The bushes in the vicinity were bespattered with blood. This mule had either wandered home with the cart or been driven there by the murderers, for they were found in the enclosure of Lacy's premises, the animal being unhitched.
.
VIEWING THE BODY
Though the country thereabouts is but thinly inhabited, a large crowd had assembled by noon near the scene of the tragedy. The greatest excitement prevailed, and this was greatly aggravated by the piteous walling of Lacy's grief-stricken wife and six children, and threats of lynching the murderers when discovered were uttered. An inquest was opened, but at first no clue to the perpetrators was found. On the next day, however, by some unaccountable agency suspicion fell upon an old negro of bad character named Andrew Whiting, and finally led to the arrest of the actual murderers. Whiting's premises were searched and several articles of blood stained clothing with found hidden under a bed, which were afterward identified as belonging to two young negroes named Pat Smith and Julius Christian. Living with old Whiting was Claiborn Smith, a younger brother of Pat Smith, who, as soon as the clothing was found, surrendered himself and made a confession which led to the arrest of the others named, including the old man Whiting. Smith and Christian were arrested by four brothers named Wallace, who, armed with shotguns, surprised them at the residence of Christian's brother-in-law, near Talleysville, and delivered them over to the authorities. 
In their possession was found the hat of Mr. Lacy, $4 in money, a quantity of groceries, some calico and matches, all of which they had taken from him on the night of the murder. A preliminary examination was held before a bench of magistrates, at which Claiborn disclosed a fiendish and well concocted plot on the part of his brother and Christian. They were all committed for trial, and the excitement quickly subsided.

ORIGIN OF THE CRIME.
If the negroes are now to be believed- and circumstances strongly support their statements- some very extraordinary relations existed between them and Lacy. The bitter man what is known in the South as a "poor white man," whose reputation for honesty and fair dealing wax not the very best. He had a small farm, on which he frequently employed Smith and Christian. They alleged that Lacy carried on a very questionable traffic in hogs which he and they captured in the swamps and woods from time to time, without regard their ownership. Those hogs were killed and cleaned and taken to market by Lacy and sold, the proceeds being divided between the negroes and himself. To use the expression of one of them, "Lacey did not tote fair about the hogs," and this engendered "hard feelings" between them. He would not pay the money claimed by them for wages and their shares of the proceeds of the sales. Smith said Lacy owed him $50, and Christian demanded $10 as the amount due him. Lacy was profuse in his promises to pay, but never could be gotten to hand them the money. Further than this the negroes had robbed a store in the neighborhood, they said, and had given Lacy's family some of the stolen goods, and when they became relentless in their demands for money he threatened them with arrest for the burglary. It was the fear of the execution of this utter threat, coupled with the belief that he would never pay them the money he owed, that led to the determination on their part to commit the terrible deed on the evening of January 17.

THE MURDER.
It appears that on the Sunday evening preceding the 17th of January Pat Smith, Julius Christian and Claiborn Smith had a conference, during which the situation was discussed and the murder planned. Pat presided, and stated that a certain party must be put out of the way. No name was called, but they were all well aware who was meant, and though no words were spoken, Pat's proposition was assented to. It was known to them that Lacy would go to Richmond on the following Friday to dispose of some hogs; that he would return in the evening, and would be an easy victim, as he was usually more or less under the influence of liquor on these occasions. The place was well detected. It was where the road ran through a swamp which was thickly wooded, and not far from an old graveyard, near a place called Emmaus Church. Accordingly, on Friday evening they were all there in that neighborhood, ostensibly hunting. It was about five o'clock, and darkness was rapidly setting in when they heard the rumble of his cart as he approached them. They allowed him to pass and then stealthily followed the cart for half a mile until it was quite dark. At this juncture the heart of Claiborne failed and he lingered behind. The other called to him to come on. He replied, "All right," and pretended to be tying his shoe. He then ran home. Pat and Julius overtook the cart, and the former, running under it from behind, seized Lacy by his legs, which were hanging down in front. The mule stopped. Lacy then seized a hatchet which he had in the cart, but not before Julius Christian had made a severe gash in his throat with a knife. A hand to hand contest followed between Christian and Lacy, during which the latter dropped his hatchet, and both rolled and tumbled a considerable distance from the cart. He succeeded in getting in a sitting posture, when Christian again gashed his throat with the knife. He then sprang to his feet, and exclaiming, "Don't hurt me! Anything I've got in the cart you can have," tried to escape by running. This appeal was unheeded. Smith run back and picked up the hatchet, chased Lacy, and, catching him by the arm, with the hatchet struck him a terrific blow on the side of the head, felling him to the ground. Christian again sprung upon him and again plunged the knife into his throat, tearing it across his windpipe. When he had done this, Smith, with butcher like brutality, chopped the hatchet into Lacy's throat, where it became so firmly fixed that it required a considerable wrench to extricate it.

PLUNDER
The murderers then searched his body and found $4 in money. They took the groceries and calico and the few other articles which Lacy had purchased for his family, and then left the scene for their home, whither Claiborn had preceded them. This was old Whiting's house, and here they hid their blood stained clothes, but in order to avoid suspicion they went that same night to the house of Christian's brother-in-law, where they were arrested. 
The trial commenced at New Kent Court House on Thursday, the 14th of February, and lasted until the 14th, when Pat Smith and Julius Christian were sentenced to be hanged, and Claiborn Smith was sent to the Penitentiary for eighteen years. The old negro, Andrew Whiting, and his mother, alleged to be implicated in the murder, yet remain to be tried.

THE MURDERERS
Pat Smith was an interior type of the genuine negro, twenty-two years of age. He stood about five foot eight inches high, was black, had coarse features, thick lips, flat nose, slanting forehead, was muscular and weighed 160 pounds. 
Julius Christian was a dark mulatto, twenty-one years old, five feet six inches high, of stout build and exhibiting great strength. He was more intelligent than Smith.

THE MURDERED MAN
John C. Lacy was about forty years of age, medium sized, with long black hair and dark eyes, and looked very much like an Indian. He was of respectable parentage, but as he grew up displayed traits of character that almost alienated him from his family and friends.

-The New York Herald, March 26, 1879


Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Gallow's Ball IX- Double Execution

Double Execution To-day.—That two young men, Pat Smith and Julius Christian, who murdered John C. Lacy in New Kent on the 17th of January, will be hanged at New Kent Courthouse to day. They confess their guilt. They have been interviewed by a reporter of The State.  
Christian says that he cut Mr. Lacy's throat with a pocket-knife while Smith held his hands, and Smith says that ha got M. Lacy's hatchet after Christian had used the knife and struck him two or three times on the head with it. Then Christian cut him again, and Smith, to make sure that he was dead, chopped his neck with the hatchet. Smith, according to his own confession, seems to have been the leading spirit in the murder. Christian says that he bad nothing against Mr. Lacy, but assisted Smith because the latter had asked him to do so.  
They seem to have very erroneous ideas about religion. Christian says that he has been a member of the church for a long time: that he was a member at the time of the murder. Smith says that he "got religion" after he was sentenced to death; that he was eight days "getting through." But both of them seem to think that as they have gone through some of the forms of religion there need be no more concern, and their remaining days will be spent in good cheer. When the cell-door was opened the reporter found them talking and laughing together, and when he left they were laughing.

- -Staunton Spectator. 25 March 1879



THE DEATH PENALTY.
Execution of Two of the Lacy Murderers New Kent Conrthouse. 
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE CRIME- THE CONDEMNED MEN TAKEN FROM RICHMOND YESTERDAY MORNING- THE TRIP TO THE GALLOWS SEEMINGLY AN ENJOYABLE ONE TO THEM- A GREAT CROWD PRESENT TO SEE THEM HANGED- CONFESSIONS FROM BOTH- DEATH SPEEDY IN CASE OF PAT. SMITH- FULL PARTICULARS OF THE REMARKABLE AFFAIR.  
The particulars of the crime for which Julius christian and Patrick Smith paid the death penalty at New Kent Courthouse yesterday are doubtless still fresh in the memory of our readers. On Friday evening, February 17, 1879 John Calvin Lacy, a citizen of New Kent county, while returning from Richmond in a trading-cart, waylaid and murdered on the road. The body of the murdered man remained on the spot where the horrid deed was committed for some time, and when found it was in such a mutilated condition as to arouse intense feeling and active measures were soon taken to discover and arrest the authors of the atrocity.  
Circumstances tending to connect Claiborne Smith, Patrick Smith, Julius Christian, and Andrew Whitney, four negro men living in New Kent, with the crime, they were all soon afterwards arrested and placed in confinement. Claiborne Smith, the youngest of the number made a full confession of his complicity in the crime, bat charged that the deed had been committed by his brother Patrick Smith and Julius Christian.  
Julius Christian and Patrick Smith were tried at the January term of the County Court of New Kent- Judge J.H. Christian presiding.  
The Commonwealth was represented by R.T. Lacy, Esq., and the prisoners were zealously defended by William E. Hart and George Jones, Esqs., counsel assigned them by the court. 
Before the trial the accused had

               CONFESSED THEIR CRIME. 
The circumstantial evidence against them was of such a character that the juries deliberated but a short while before bringing in a verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree, and the Court sentenced them to be hanged on the 25th day of March, 1879, between the hours of 10 A.M. and 2 P.M., within sight of the court-house. The prisoners were then brought to this city and confined in Henrico county jail. Claiborne Smith was subsequently convicted of murder in the second degree and sentenced to confinement in the penitentiary for eighteen years. Yesterday, the day fixed by the Court for their execution, Julius Christian and Patrick Smith, the prisoners, were taken from the jail about 4 o'clock A.M. by Littleton Royster, sheriff of New Kent, and carried to the York-River Railroad depot, where a reporter for the Dispatch found them, surrounded by a detail of policemen, conversing cheerfully with the bystanders and

                     EATING GINGER CAKES
with evident satisfaction. The train started from the city about 5 o'clock, and all the way down the condemned men manifested be greatest indifference. They replied readily to all statement, which differs but little from their first confession. Julius Cbristian was the spokesman, and his declarations were frequently affirmed by Pat. Smith with "Yes," "Dat's so," "Sure nuff," &c.  
Christian said that about, six weeks before the murder Pat. Smith and himself broke into the store of Major Townsend, at the Forge, and stole a lot of bacon and flour; that on the Tuesday preceding the Friday on which the murder was committed he met Mr. Lacy on the road, who, after some other conversation, asked him if he had seen Pat. and Claiborne Smith lately, and to his reply that he had Lacy, said, "If you don't stop going with them you will get in trouble," and, further, that he (Julius) would have to leave the county for something he had done. Christian said this conversation satisfied him that Lacy knew something about the robbery at Major Townsend's, and as Lacy had made threats against them at Talleysville a short while before, be thought it would be best to tell Smith about it and take some means of 

                PUTTING LACY OUT OF THE WAY. 
He said Pat. Smith, Claiborne Smith, and himself met together and talked over the plans of accomplishing their object, when it was finally determined to kill Lacy and his body in Toink swamp. That accordingly they met at the swamp Friday evening, and shortly after dark Lacy came up, sitting in the cart with his feet hanging outside. That they did not consider the spot favorable for their purpose, but followed the doomed man some distance up the road. That Patrick Smith, running under the cart, caught Lacy by the feet, and attempted to pull him out, and did succeed in doing so after a struggle, in which Lacy seized a hatchet and attempted to cut.  
Christian said that Lacy fell down in the road on his face, and that as soon as was down  he (Christian) ran forward and, pressing him to the ground.

                    CUT HIM ACROSS THE THROAT
twice with a new pocket-knife. He said that Lacy struggled very hard, and rising on his knees, said: "Boy, don't hart me; take everything in the cart, but don't kill me," and still fighting and crying murder, got up and ran for some distance. Christian said he was frightened because Lacy had recognized him, and held back, but that Smith ran back to the cart and getting the hatchet, pursued Lacy, and exclaiming "Come on, now's your time,"  caught him in the back and struck him a blow in the temple, which rendered him unconscious and followed up the assault by several blows across the throat, which cut the neck almost in two.  
The train arrived at Summit Station at 6 1/2 o'clock, where twenty mounted men had been provided as an armed escort by the vigilant sheriff. 
The prisoners were put in a two-horse wagon in which were seated Deputy-Sheriff Zach. Crump,  Messrs. Waddill and Tinsley, Dr. George W. Richardson and the Dispatch Representative. After some little delay the procession moved on the road to the court-house, fourteen miles distant. 

                ON THE ROAD TO DEATH
many accessions were made to the crowd, and before reaching Talleysville the procession was probably half a mile long. Men, women, and children, white and black, on foot and in all manner of vehicles, made up the procession, and the occupants of the various farm-houses on the line hurried to the roadside to see the strange sight. The prisoners appeared as unconcerned as ever. They munched ginger-bread with great avidity or smoked cigars with as much gusto as if on a holiday Jaunt, and were evidently pleased to see the interest they excited. At Talleysville Julius Christian's mother came up to the wagon, and embracing and calling him her "precious lamb," bade a final farewell to her son. There was something pathetic in her utterances, but Julius was unmoved; and when she besought the sheriff to send the body to her the son replied, "Go 'way; the body ain't no account." When the procession arrived within sight of the gallows, Pat. Smith, looking at the vast crowd in its vicinity, exclaimed: 

              "GREAT LORD! LOOK AT DE PEOPLE. 
Dar dey is sctiin" up iu de trees like turkey buzzards" Arrived at the spot, the condemned men were dismounted and carried in the courtroom, where the shrouds of black cambric were placed upon them. The coffins were then placed in the wagon and the prisoners seated upon them. The gallows, which was erected about one fourth of a mile -south of the court-house, was soon reached, the men placed upon the trap, and the noose adjusted. After reading the death-warrant Sheriff Royster said: "Julius Christian, have you anything to say before the sentence of the law is executed upon you?" Christian replied that he had, and for about fifteen minutes poured out in a singing tone an incoherent exhortation to those present, declaring his readiness to die, and saying that he would soon awake "in Abraham's bosom." He then made a short and unsatisfactory confession of his crime. Pat. Smith also declared his readiness to die. He said, "The Lord had told him nothing should harm him at that hour"; and concluded by saying, "Good-bye, all ! The Lord done spoke peace to my soul. I am prepared to die, and I am gwineto Heaven- I reckon." When the confessions had been made there was some feeling manifested among those present, and 

   ONE MAN VOLUNTEERED TO PULL THE TRAP;
but Sheriff Royster replied, "No, sir; it is my painful duty to do so." After adjusting the caps Pat. Smith said, "Mr. Royster, send my things home," alluding to a "small bundle of clothing. At 11:40, everything being in readiness, Sheriff Royster and Deputy-Sheriff Crump seized the rope tied to the stake supporting the trap, and, giving a sudden pull, the support fell from beneath them and Julius Christian and Patrick Smith were ushered into eternity. Smith being the heavier of the two died without a struggle; but Christian died of strangulation, and his body swayed back and forth several times before his struggles ceased. At 12 o'clock Dr. L. A. Slater examined the bodies and pronounced life extinct. The bodies were then cut down that of Christian given to his friends and Smith's buried at the foot or the gallows. It is estimated that

                    TWO THOUSAND PERSONS 
were present on the ground, and the day appeared more a holiday than otherwise. A tent had been erected on the green, in which a negro-minstrel entertainment was going on, a patent-medicine man was vending his nostrums, and a good business was done by the vendors of oysters and other edibles. Good order prevailed, however, and Sheriff Royster deserves commendation for the propriety which characterized the conduct of all under his charge, and the careful and skillful manner with which he discharged the unpleasant duties devolving upon him. 

- Daily Dispatch, 26 March 1879


Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Gallow's Ball VIII - Attempted Departure

Wherein our prisoners attempt to recreate the fiery escape that destroyed the New Kent county jail


DARING ATTEMPT OF NOTED CRIMINALS TO BREAK JAIL-

THE COUNTY JAIL ON FIRE. -

About 11 o'clock last night Hoseman Ramsey, of steam Fire Engine Company No. 2, who resides on Main street near the corner of Twenty-first street, was aroused by persons crying "Fire!" he jumped up, put on his uniform and helmet, and ran across the street to the point where the alarm came from, to find the Henrico county jail on fire, he was soon followed by Hoseman William M. Allen, W.D. Cottrell, and one or two others not connected with the Fire Department. They entered the jail, where jailer Fisher was endeavoring to keep the prisoners from escaping and at the same time put out the fire.

The floor of the cell in which the two negroes Julius Christian and Patrick Christian were confined was found to be in flames and the jail filled with smoke well nigh to suffocation. Indeed, the firemen found a difficult duty before them. They went to work, however, and carried blankets and tubs of water up-stairs until the flames had been partly subdued. The windows were then thrown open, and after the jail was partly ventilated a search was made for the prisoners. Pat. Smith had gone down into the yard, having in some way cut off his chains. Julius, however did not go out of the yard, but remained in the cell with a blanket over his head to keep the smoke from suffocating him.

The negroes had set fire to the floor under the stove, where it was dry and would easily burn, but the building being closed, it was impossible for the smoke to get out, and the prisoner named must have died from the effects of the smoke had not speedy aid been rendered. As it was both men were well nigh overcome by it. A prisoner, named Jackson, who occupied the cell below, heard a noise above his head, and called out to know what was the matter. At first he had no reply. Finally he was told that the floor would soon fall in, and that it was on fire, Jackson called Jailer Fisher who took in the situation at once. He very naturally concluded that the object of the prisoners was to rush out by him as soon as he opened the door to put out the fire; but he was too good an officer to be caught in that way; and so he kept the jail-door closed until help arrived. Patrick Christian had muffled his boots by cutting up a blanket and tying pieces around the soles of his boots, hoping, no doubt, that when the door was opened he could pass out through the smoke and crowd unseen down the stairs and escape unheard. In the darkness one of the men, finding that he could not get away, went back to his chains and fastened the locks by means of a string, hoping thereby to avoid detection.

After quiet had been restored and the fire extinguished the prisoners were put back into their cell. Julius Christian and Patrick Smith are the two negroes who are awaiting execution on the 25th instant for the murder of Mr. John C. Lacy in New Kent county a few weeks ago.

  -Daily Dispatch, 11 March 1879


Sunday, October 28, 2018

Gallow's Ball VII - Arrivals

Arrival of Prisoners.
Sheriff Royster and his deputies, Z.T. Crump and Charles Tinsley, arrived here from New Kent county yesterday afternoon, having in their charge the four negroes arrested for the murder or John C. Lacy. Two are to be hanged on the 2-th March, and in the mean time will be confined in Henrico jail. Claiborne Smith, upon whose confession mainly these two were convicted, will be taken to the penitentiary for eighteen years. The fourth accused has elected to be tried in the Circuit Court, which meets on the 25th of May. 

- Daily Dispatch, 21 February 1879



Arrival of the Last of the Lacy Murderers.- Deputy-Sheriff Z.T. Crump, of New Kent, arrived in this city yesterday, having in charge Griffin Bagby (colored), arrested on suspicion of being one of the parties to the Lacy murder. The accused was locked up in the Henrico county jail for safe keeping until the March term of New Kent County Court.

-Daily Dispatch, Feb 27, 1879



Saturday, October 27, 2018

Gallow's Ball VI - "Amid Profound Silence"



NEW KENT COUNTY. 
THE LACY MURDERERS UP FOR TRIAL- TWO OF THE NEGROES CONVICTED AND SENTENCED TO BE HUNG ON THE 25TH OF MARCH- TRIAL OF THE OTHER POSTPONED UNTIL TODAY, &C 
The brutal murder or John C. Lacy, which occurred on the 17th of last month, has created a profound sensation and interest in this and surrounding counties At the time of the perpetration of the outrage, as your readers were informed, threats were made and fears were entertained that the alleged murderers would be handled according to the code of Judge Lynch; but Better counsels prevailed, and the persons charged with the crime to wit: Julius Christian, Patrick and Claiborne Smith, and Andrew Whiting- were taken to the Henrico county jail to await trial at the February term of our County Court.  
Accordingly, on Thursday last Sheriff Royster arrived from Richmond in charge of the prisoners. Most of the day was taken up n examination of witnesses by the grand jury, who found true bills against all the parties accused; and it was not until late in the afternoon that a jury was enpanelled(sic) for the trial of Julius Christian, whom it was determined first to try, the accused having elected to sever in their trial.  
The jury was adjourned over until 10 o'clock Friday, when, upon assembling, the Commonwealth proceeded to examine her witnesses. The principal and most important evidence was that of Mr. James W. Stamper, of Richmond, to whom the prisoners had made a confession while in Henrico jail. Mr. Stamper gave in his testimony in a very lucid manner, detailing all the circumstances connected with the murder as confessed by the accused, making up a case of the most shocking and diabolical brutality.  
The Commonwealth was represented by R. T. Lacy, Esq. and the prisoner, at the request of the court, was represented by William E. Hart and George A. Jones, Esq- 
The case was submitted without argument about 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon, and after an absence of ten minutes the jury returned with a verdict of "guilty of murder in the first degree." Judge Christian, amid profound silence on the part of the large crowd assembled, then proceeded, in a most touching and impressive manner, to pass sentence upon the condemned man, who received the same with the stolid indifference of an iceberg, and seemed less moved by the pathetic remarks of the Judge than anyone else present. 
At this writing Patrick Smith is on trial.
 Yours, N. K. 
February 16, 1879.


Since I last, wrote you another of the Lacy murderers- Patrick Smith- has been condemned to suffer the extreme penalty of the law. The accused was defended by Messrs. Hart and Jones, who made the most of the facts in the case for the benefit of their client, while R. T. Lacy. Esq., represented the Commonwealth. After an elaborate argument of the case, the jury retired for a few minutes, when they brought in a verdict as above stated. If possible, the prisoner manifested more dare-devil indifference to his fate than the one previously convicted, and remained perfectly unmoved during the delivery of the affecting sentence of the Court. The interest in the trials remains unabated, and a dense crowd throngs the court-house each day. Owing to the necessary absence of counsel on to-morrow, the Court last night adjourned over to Tuesday the 18th instant, when the remaining two prisoners will be arraigned for trial. I will endeavor to keep you posted as to the result, notwithstanding the tardiness of our mails. The prisoners arc kept under guard, our jail having been burned more than a year ago. 
Yours hastily, N.K.

-Daily Dispatch, 18 February 1879


Friday, October 26, 2018

Gallow's Ball V - Convicted



The New Kent Murder.
TWO OF THE NEGROES CONVICTED AND SENTENCED TO BE HUNG.
We have already given a full account of the shocking murder of Mr. John C. Lacy, of New Kent, county, by four negroes, on the night of the 17th January. The first of the negroes, Julius Christian, was tried on Tuesday, and late in the evening found guilty of murder in the first degree and sentenced to be bung on the 25th March. The jury was sent out between 4 and 5 o'clock, and were away from the courtroom about ten minutes only. 
 The next one of the murderers arraigned was Patrick Smith which was done on Friday evening. The trial was not concluded until Saturday, when the accused was found guilty and sentenced to be hung on the 25th March by Judge Isaac H. Christian. 
No disposition has yet been, made of the other cases.

 -Daily Dispatch, 17 February 1879



Three Murderers Sentenced.
Julius Christian, Patrick Smith, and Claiborne Smith, the negroes who murdered Mr. Lacy in New Kent, have been sentenced by Judge Isaac H. Christian to be hung March 25th. The jury before which the prisoners were tried consisted of eight white and four colored men.

-The (Richmond) State, February 17, 1879


Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Gallow's Ball IV - "A Spirit of Revenge"



 The Recent Murder in New Kent
Further information relative to the recent murder in New Kent county reveals the fact that up to the time of the arrest of the parties charged with the deed there existed in that portion of the county an organized gang of robbers as desperate as any community was ever afflicted with. It was the intention of the murderers to commit the deed about two miles higher up the road, but the victim having arrived at that point earlier than they expected, they went on down the road with him, chatting in a friendly way, until it became dark enough for their purpose. It is also seated, upon good authority, that this same gang, of which these negroes were members, had planned four other murders, partly for gain and partly to right some fancied wrongs- two of the intended victims being white and the others colored. It is believed that the murder of Lucy was not prompted by gain alone, but that it is now believed was done in a spirit of revenge, as one of the parties implicated had been beard to make threats of violence against him. 
The excitement among the colored portion of the community was intense, and had they received the slightest encouragement from the whites, it is believed that the State would hot have been put to the expense incident to a trial.

-Daily Dispatch, 25 January 1879


Gallow's Ball III - No Jail to Keep Them In


Yesterday's post related how the prisoners from New Kent were being held in the Henrico county jail instead in New Kent " . . . because the jail of that county was burned last summer, and has not since been rebuilt."


 BURNING OF NEW KENT COUNTY JAIL.-
The jail at New Kent Courthouse was destroyed by fire on Sunday morning about 2 o'clock under the following circumstances: A colored man, whose name could not be ascertained, was confined in the upper cell on a charge of felony. He set fire to the flooring, and as soon as a space sufficiently large was made descended to the lower cell and made his escape through one of the windows. He doubtless had help from the outside, as the windows were made secure by heavy iron bars. At last accounts he was still at large.

 -The Richmond Whig, 16 January 1878


Another paper has a briefer account that gives the man's name as Fox. There was according to court records of the period a man by that name being held awaiting trial.

Monday, October 22, 2018

Gallow's Ball II - Further Details . . .




LOCAL MATTERS
 The Lacy Murder
FURTHER DETAILS OF THE HORRID CRIME- NAMES OF THE ACCUSED- THEY ARE SAFELY LODGED IN THE HENRICO COUNTY JAIL-
Information received here yesterday fully confirms the account of the brutal murder of John C. Lacy of New Kent county, published in the Dispatch yesterday; and additional details fail to furnish any motive for the perpetration of such a crime other than that of mere petty larceny. From all we can learn, a plan was formed and agreed upon by three young negroes, named Pat. Smitb, Claiborn Smith, and Julius Christian, to waylay and rob Lacy, and, if necessary, to kill him in accomplishing their purpose. As before stated, it was known to two of the negroes who had assisted Lacy in killing his hogs that be had come to this city to dispose of them, and that he would return with the proceeds of the sale on Friday evening. Accordingly about dark on that day the negroes stationed themselves, at a lonely wooded spot on the Forge road about eight miles from New Kent Courthouse to await the coming of their victim. They were not detained long; for soon the old man's cart came rumbling along and passed them. They then set out in pursuit, when Claiborn, who appears to be the youngest and who perhaps was less of a villain than the rest of them, stopped behind, ostensibly to tie his shoe, but really, as he states, to "back out of the job," which, as its execution neared, be did not relish. Claiborn lingered behind, listening eagerly to ascertain what the others would do, and in a short time after they had left him h heard the voice of Lacy crying, "Murder!" "Murder!" in agonized tones, until it became hushed in death. He fled and was soon at home in the house of Andrew Whitney, an old negro aged, about sixty years. On Saturday morning, when the body of Lacy was discovered, suspicion at first fell upon this old man, Whitney, and Claiborn Smith, because they resided nearest the scene of the murder, and probably owing to other circumstances. They were at once arrested, and a search of the premises resulted in the discovery of some of the blood-stained clothing of Pat. Smith and Julius Christian. These discoveries, and the "confession," or rather volunteered statement of Claiborn Smitb, who related the plot of Friday and his connection therewith, led to the arrest of the other two, Pat. Smith and Julius Christian, on Sunday morning, at their home, on the farm of Mr. Alfred Selden. When arrested the hat of Mr. Lacy, four dollars in money, some groceries, calico, and a quantity of matches, also his property, were found in their possession. The inquest took place on Sunday, and a preliminary examination before a bench of magistrates followed on Monday, at which the four negroes, Andrew Whitney, Pat. Smith, Julius Christian, and Claiborn Smith were committed for indictment on the charge of murder. The repeated rumors of attempted lynching could be traced to no authentic source. Citizens in the vicinity, of course, were horrified at such a cold blooded and atrocious murder, but there was neither an attempt at lynching nor even threats to that effect. The people of New Kent are too well known to be law-abiding and peaceable to indulge in such a violation of the laws of the land as lynching. The prisoners, who were expected hereon Monday evening, did not arrive until yesterday morning, and they are now safely locked up in the Henrico-county jail. Their removal here, however, is not clue to any apprehension of lynch-law on the part or the people of New Kent, but simply because the jail of that county was burned last summer, and has not since been rebuilt. The two Smiths are aged respectively about sixteen and eighteen years, are medium sized, and of a light, ginger-bread color. Christian is about twenty years old, and black, and the old man Andrew Whitney is brown skinned, tall, and muscular. The two alleged murderers are notoriously bad characters in New Kent county.

- Daily Dispatch, 22 January 1879



Sunday, October 21, 2018

Gallow's Ball I - Brutally Butchered


BRUTALLY BUTCHERED

AN INNOCENT NEW KENT FARMER BRUTALLY MURDERED BY A PARTY OF NEGROES WHILE RETURNING HOME-HIS HEAD NEARLY CHOPPED OFF WITH A HATCHET- THE PARTIES ARRESTED &C

John C. Lacy, a citizen of New, Kent count, who lived on his farm, near the Williamsburg road, twenty-four miles from this city, was brutally murdered by four negroes on Friday night a short distance from his home.

On Thursday Mr. Lacy killed his hogs at his place, six miles, from Tunstall's station on the Richmond, York River and Chesapeake road, and then put them into his cart and brought the pork to Richmond to sell. After making sale, and buying a number of articles which were needed on the farm, he started home with the balance of the money in his pocket. When he had gotten to Cedar-Grove Cemetery, near Emmaus church, or in that vicinity, he was met by four negroes, who commenced a conversation with him and finally requested that they be allowed to ride home with him. This was refused by Mr. Lacy, because the roads were bad, his team was tired, and he was anxious to get home. Finding that they could not get at their victim in this way, they determined to take possession of his cart by force. It was Mr. Lacy's habit to always carry a hatchet with him, and knowing this they determined to get possession of it- thus disarm him, and if necessary use it in carrying off their plan to rob him. So they stopped the cart, got possession the hatchet after some resistance, and not being able to get his money without killing him went to work and well nigh chopped his head off. Rifling his pockets and taking such of his purchases as they desired, they drove on toward the farm-house of the murdered man, opened the gate, and turned his horse and cart into the yard.

One of the negroes, it is states becoming alarmed at what his associates were doing, left the party, went on ahead, and gave notice of the murders and probably mentioned names of those who were engaged in the horrid crime.

On Saturday a coroner's jury was summoned, an inquest held, and a verdict rendered in accordance with the facts above storied.

On Sunday the body of the deceased was buried at Emmaus church, near where he was murdered.

Mr. Lacy, it is said, raised one of the negroes who murdered him- all four of whom have been arrested. The man whom he raised, as well as one or two of the others, were with Mr. Lacy on Thursday when he killed his hogs, and were cognizant of his visit to Richmond. The two men first arrested seemed to have been innocent of the crime, and they are believed to have been let off. A negro woman who lived in the neighborhood had been employed by the other two to wash for them, and in her possession a pair of pantaloons was found. that had been washed but which were not dry. On these breeches were many blood stains. These two men were arrested- Sunday morning about 10 o'clock. The men first arrested gave the names of the others. In the possession of one of the latter the sum of eight dollars was found, and from the pocket of the other man was Mr. Lacy's hat taken. 
The men were arrested by Sheriff Royster and Constable Higgins and were taken to Talleysville, four miles from Tunstall's station. There is no jail in New Kent county, the jail having been destroyed by fire some time ago.

It is supposed that the men will be brought to the Henrico county jail for safe-keeping.

The citizens of -Sew Kent are indignant at the crime, and much excitement prevails in the neighborhood of Mr. Lacy's former residence.



- Daily Dispatch, 21 January 1879



Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Gallow's Ball - Prologue

For the Halloween season this website will present an extended series on the Lacy murder of the winter of 1879 and the subsequent trial, executions, and, . . .well,  . . .strange occurrences that followed.

Friday, October 12, 2018

Reuben Burrell and the Champagne, Sep- Oct 1918 - II

More on Reuben Burrell


In addition to the 369th Infantry Regiment (old New York Fifteenth) and the 370th (old Eighth Illinois), the 371st and 372nd Regiments, also composed of colored troops, were brigaded with the French during their active service overseas. It had been first decided by the United States War Department that these four colored regiments should form the nucleus of the 93rd Division (Provisional), but it was finally decided not to organize the 93rd Division, but to brigade these four regiments with French troops.
The 371st Infantry was organized August 31, 1917, at Camp Jackson, South Carolina, in compliance with War Department General Order No. 109, of August 16, 1917, as the First Provisional Infantry Regiment (colored). Col. Perry L. Miles assumed' command of the regiment September 1, 1917. All the officers of the 371st regiment were white. On September 5, 1917, fourteen colored men from Pensacola, Florida, were received as the first recruits for the regiment. The time of arrival of recruits for the regiment was delayed by the War Department for about a month, because of the shortage of labor in moving the 1917 cotton crop. It was not until early in October that the first considerable body of recruits was received. By November 20, 1917, however, 3,380 men had been received by the regiment. These men were not all received at once, but in varying sized draft increments at different times. Of this number, 1,680 men were transferred to labor organizations and 500 to a combat organization at Camp Upton.

Under a staff of French officer instructors and interpreters the 371st Infantry was reorganized on the French plan, soon after its arrival in France (April 23, 1918), with 194 men to the company and three machine gun companies to the regiment instead of one as on the American plan. All the American equipment was turned in, and the men were given the French rifles, bayonets, helmets, packs, and other equipment of the French soldier. Only the American khaki uniform remained. After a few weeks' instruction in this new equipment and in French tactics, the regiment went into the trenches as part of the 157th French Division under General Goybet. It remained in line for over three months, holding first the Avocourt and later the Verrières. subsectors (northwest of Verdun). The regiment, with its division, was then taken out of line and thrown into the great September offensive in the Champagne. It took Cote 188, Bussy Ferme, Ardeuil, Montfauxelles, and Trieres Ferme near Monthois, and captured a number of prisoners, 47 machine guns, 8 trench engines, 3 field pieces (77s), a munition depot, a number of railroad cars, and enormous quantities of lumber, hay, and other supplies. It shot down three German airplanes by rifle and machine-gun fire during the advance. 

Flag of the 157


During the fighting between September 28 and October 6, 1918, its losses---which were mostly in the first three days---were 1,065 out of 2,384 actually engaged. The regiment was the apex of the attacking salient in this great battle. The percentage of both dead and wounded among the officers was rather greater than among the enlisted men. Realizing their great responsibilities, the wounded officers continued to lead their men until they dropped from exhaustion and lack of blood. The men were devoted to their, leaders and as a result stood up against-a most gruelling fire, bringing the regiment its well deserved fame.

-Scott's Official History of the American Negro in the World War- Emmett J. Scott, A.M., LL.D.
Secretary of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. (Eighteen years Private Secretary to the Late Booker T. Washington )

For its extraordinary service in the Champagne offensive, the entire regiment was awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palm.  In addition, three of the officers of the 371st were awarded the French Legion of Honor, 123 men won the Croix de Guerre and 26 earned the Distinguished Service Cross.  Corporal Freddie Stowers won the Medal of Honor.
- http://371regiment.homestead.com



"I grappled the Boche at the throat and made him yell for mercy. Our glorious comrades who died are well avenged. ”- General Goybet, commander of the 157th Division


General Mariano Francisco Julio Goybet





Sunday, October 7, 2018

Reuben Burrell and the Champagne, Sep- Oct 1918 - I


Citation 
BURRELL, REUBEN
Private, U.S. Army
Machine-Gun Company, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division, A.E.F. 
Date of Action: September 30, 1918 
Citation:
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Reuben Burrell, Private, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action in the Champagne Sector, France, September 30, 1918. Private Burrell, although painfully wounded in the knee, refused to be evacuated, stating that if he went to the rear there would not be enough left for his group to function.
General Orders No. 46, W.D., 1919
Home Town: Conshohocken, PA

 His birthplace is listed as New Kent, Virginia.
This would be the same Reuben Burrell listed in the Census of 1910 as part of the household of Nathan Burrell in Cumberland District

Head Nathan W Burrell M 65  
Son         Rebedee Burrell M 23  
Daughter Ada Burrell F 21 
Daughter Josephine Burrell F 26  
Son         Ruben Burrell M 16  
Son         James H Burrell M 14  
Son         Clarence Burrell M 12


Some of the Burrells went to the Philadelphia area (Conshohocken is between Philadelphia and King of Prussia) around the time of first World War. 


Next-  more on Burrell and the 371st Regiment



Sunday, September 23, 2018

The Happy September Ninety-Nine Years ago

ENJOYING SEPTEMBER, 
New Kent People Are Happy.
Providence Forge. Sept. 20- September is making a record for itself. The magnificent days that have followed one another the past week, have added much enjoyment to those visiting our hustling little village.
Sora are being killed in small quantities. Messrs. J H. Christian, E.F. Gill, J.B. Richardson and W.F. Gilliam were in Bradby's Marsh, near Windsor Shades, last
week, but the sora came up missing. 
Protracted meetings are in progress this week at Oliver Presbyterian church. Rev. Osborne officiating. 
The Masonic Lodge is being rapidly built. It promises to be quite a nice building. 
Mr. J. B. Richardson has returned from the White Sulphur Springs very much benefited in health. 
Mrs. W. F. Gilliam and son, Blair, and Miss Mary Taylor Gilliam, of Richmond, were visitors in Williamsburg a few days since. 
Miss Josie Oliver, of Richmond, is the guest of her brother here. 
Miss Clara Bock, of Pennsylvania. is visiting her brother, Fred S.Bock. 
Mrs. G.C. Edwards and daughter of Richmond. have returned to their home, after spending some time at the former's parents. 
Mrs. Julia Anderson and two children, of Portsmouth, are on a visit to her parents. Mr. and Mrs. Robertson. 
Miss Fedora Haxall has left for college in Red Springs, N.C. 
Mr. Home, the popular proprietor of the Windsor Hotel, Boulevard, and Mr. S.C. Burnette were in our village Saturday. 
Mrs. E. B. Townsend, of Washington. D.C., will arrive here Oct. 1st. to straighten up the late Col. E.B. Townsend's estate. he leaving all his property to his widow, who is sole administratrix.

Roxbury. Va.. September 20- 
A larger crowd of admiring friends of Mr. C.D. Binns, the young merchant of this place, at Roxbury Wednesday to congratulate the young man and his bride, but were doomed to disappointment when the young merchant got off the train alone looking sad. As he told of his disappointment, tears would force their way down his rosy cheeks. He told of his travels to far away Cincinnati with the fond hopes of bringing back a fair rose, out from the west, but the sweet thing changed her mind and took another. Yet the young man is not discouraged and says "if you wont another will; if none do not, it's better still." Cheer up, Charlie, "faint heart never won fair lady." 
The roads in New Kent have completed and the fine teem is hauling telephone poles.
September 28th will be court day for New Kent. Court will be held in a storehouse as the new courthouse is not completed. The most important case to be tried this is that of two negro boys for holding up and robbing a Syrian woman peddler some time ago.


-Virginia Gazette, September 23, 1909



Thursday, September 20, 2018

"Man By the Name of Wilson"


 It is a wonder that so much information can be teased out about a man's life from one small advertisement.

$50 REWARD FOR WILSON.- Absconded from the subscriber, in the month of April, 1836 man by the name of Wilson. From information received, it appears that Wilson was raised in the county of New Kent, about 8 miles below the C.H., by a gentleman named Ratcliffe, and by him sold to a gentleman named Taylor, living 13 miles above Williamsburg, on whose farm he had a wife and several children. Mr. Taylor sold him to Mr. Slater, living near the New Kent and James City line, who, in consequence of removing to Alabama, left him, and when retaken was sold to John M. Gregory, Esq. of Williamsburg, Va., and afterwards purchased by his present owner, from Thomas McCargo & Co., of Richmond. Nothing was heard of him until last November,(1837) when I was informed he had been taken and put in New Kent jail, but afterwords made his escape, by burning out, and has not since been heard of. Wilson is about 5 feet 6 inches high, slender made, bushy head, dark yellow colour, pleasing countenance, and about 36 years old. The above reward will be paid for his apprehension, and placed in any jail in the State or United States, so that I obtain him again.  
ALEX  CUNNINGHAM 
Cunninghams's Store, N.C. Nov. 1838 59-w6w

 -Richmond Enquirer, December 14, 1838




Some notes

A) I wonder if the Ratcliffe named is the owner of the tavern of the same name that was in the Quinton area.

B) John M. Gregory, was soon to be Lieutenant Governor, and was Acting Governor of Virginia from March 1842 until 5 January 1843. He was later a judge.

C) Yet another burning of New Kent's jail.

D) Thomas McCargo was a slave trader based out of Richmond.  He gained a measure of notoriety in November 1841 when while transporting slaves down the coast on the brig Creole, the slaves rose up, took control of the ship and sailed it into Nassau, the Bahamas leading to an international incident.

E) Rather shockingly(at least to me) I had no trouble discovering more about the advertiser.

"Alexander Cuningham of Petersburg, Va (1776 -1849) was the owner of Cunningham Store in Person County. His father was also named Alexander Cuningham and was from Edinburgh, Scotland. He ran a wholesale merchandise business in Petersburg, Va with his brother Richard. and speculated in land in many states.
. . .
In 1814 He married Mary (Patsey) Wilson (1792-1886) daughter of John Wilson who built Dans Hill near Danville, Va. In the early 1820's he opened Cunningham's Store along the border with Halifax County, Va and Person County, NC.
. . .
 Alexander and his son John Wilson Cuningham (born Petersburg, Va 1820- 1887) built up the plantation to include 8000 acres and became one of the wealthiest planters in the area. He owned at one time 193 slaves. The Cuningham home called Waverly still exists on Cuningham Road in Person County along with the cemetery where Alexander Cuningham and 7 generations are buried." 

F) As for Wilson, well I would say the man did not want to be found



Saturday, September 15, 2018

Governor at Bridge Opening-1926

                                                      
                                                         Opening Of New Bridge. 
Richmond. — Governor Harry Flood Byrd, John R. Saunders, attorney general and H.G. Shirley, state highway commissioner. were among the speakers at the opening of the Pamunkey River Bridge at West Point on Monday. September 20. The bridge joins West Point and New Kent county. It connects the section with the national highway to points north. It leads over the Washington route to Bowling Green. Mangohick and King William Courthouse, through to Newport News and Old Point. Outside of this connection with the national highway Richmond is connected with the sections between the Rappahannock and York rivers.
-Northern Neck News, 24 September 1926

Sunday, September 2, 2018

New Pages- New Rosters

You will see on the left, as part of an ongoing program, links to pages with rosters of the New Kent Cavalry (Co. F, 3rd Virginia Cavalry) and the Barhamsville Greys ( Co. B, 53rd Virginia Infantry).


Here are the direct links


Barhamsville Greys


New Kent Cavalry


Monday, August 6, 2018

Roster of New Kent Cavalry, Co. F, Third Virginia Cavalry Regiment

A simplified roster, a more complete one to follow, of the troop known as the New Kent Cavalry also known as the New Kent Dragoons, first Capt. Melville Vaiden's company of cavalry, later Co. K, then Co. F, of the Third Virginia Cavalry regiment.



Officers

Capt. Melville Vaiden - Original commander- died Dec. 1861

Capt. Telemachus Taylor - May 1862—resigned due to illness July 1862

Capt. Jones R. Christian - Elected 2nd Lt. Apr. ’62 promoted Captain Dec. ‘62- captured May 18, 1864

Brumley, George T., 1st Lt. (1st Sgt. elected 1st Lt. –Jun. ’61,– resigned Aug 1861)                

Clopton, William E., 1st Lt. (promoted 2nd Lt.- Sept. ’61, promoted 1st Lt.- Apr.. ’62, resigned Sept. 1862. Captured July 1, 1863, exchanged Mar. 1864)

Lacy, Benjamin W., 1st Lt. (promoted 1st Sgt. Sept. ’61- 1st Lt. – Jan. ’63)

Chandler, Oliver M., 2nd Lt. (orig. 1st Sgt., 3rd Lt.- Sept. ’61, 2nd  Lt. - Feb. ’62, discharged Apr. ’62.)

Christian, James S., 2nd Lt. (promoted 2nd Sgt. Feb. ’62, elected 2nd Lt. – Apr. ‘62 – Killed Sept. 15, ’62, Boonsboro, MD)

Crump, Edgar M. 2nd Lt. (elected 3rd Lt. Jan. ’63, promoted 2nd Lt. Aug. ’63)
McCheny, R., Lt.

Stamper, Henry W., 2nd Lt. (elected from Sgt. Jan. ‘63- resigned commission June 1863 effective Aug.)

Savage, Southey L., 2nd Lt. (promoted Feb. 1862. April ‘62 attached to the Adjutant and Inspector-General's Department of the CS Army.)

Non-commissioned Officers

Apperson, Robert C., Sgt.
Apperson, Samuel H., Sgt.          
Bland, Robert E., Sgt.     
Calthorn, M.A., Sgt.       
Christian, William, Sgt.
Jones, Chesley M., Sgt.
Minor, Ed C., 1st Sgt.
Tyree, George W., Sgt.
Royster, J.J., Sgt.
Williams, James C., Sgt.
Apperson, John C., Cpl.                
Bradenham, John R., Cpl.
Hicks, William A., Cpl.    
Mills, Archer W., Cpl.     
Pollard, William A., Cpl.
Royster, Littleton, Cpl.
Sherman, Michael, Cpl.

Marston, William W., Surgeon
Slater, Leonard A., Surgeon
Gregory, William T., Surgeon
Wilkinson, William L., Quarter Master

Privates

Adkins, W.F.                      
Apperson, William A.     
Atkinson, Frank               
Atkinson, Henry A.         
Atkinson, William E.       
Baldwin, George T.         
Ballard, William                
Blayton, John
Blayton, William A.
Boswell, James W
Boyd, George G.                             
Bradley, Pleasant            
Bradley, R.         
Bradley, Robert               
Burnett, Washington     
Burr, Henry D.
Christian, Armistead                      
Christian, John D., Jr.     
Christian, Robert O.       
Christian, William C.       
Clark, Wm. Alpheus       
Clarke, Richard A.            
Clarke, William R.                            
Coke, W.A.        
Cook, William E.               
Crump, D. W.                    
Crump, George T.           
Crump, H. Clay
Crump, Hammond F.     
Crump, John W.
Crump, L.            
Crump, Z. Taylor
Cumber, Wm. N.  - bugler           
Dandridge, Bat C.            
Davis, John A.   
Davis, William B.              
Dell, John D.      
Dixon, Richardson           
Elliott, Walter A.              
Ellyson, Alfred B.             
Ellyson, D.B.      
Ellyson, Lemuel G.
Ellyson, Samuel W.         
Eppes, Edward C.            
Estes, John M.  
Farley, Richard G.            
Faunholt, L. (sic)              
Frayser, Richard E. – promoted Signal Corps, Capt. on Staff of J.E.B Stuart            
Gilliam, Thomas Q.         
Gilliam, William O.           
Gills, G.A.           
Goddin, John    
Griffith, W.H.    
Gunn, James M.              
Harman, Benjamin         
Haynes, W.G.   
Hill, Beverly W.
Hill, George W.
Hill, John A.        
Hubbard, Benjamin C.   
Hubbard, Bowles S.        
Hubbard, J.S.    
Hubbard, R.H.   
Hubbard, William N.       
Johnston, J. Silas             
Jones, William W.                            
Lacy, P. F.           
Lacy, Richard Terrell                
Lacy, Theophilus S.         
Larus, T. P.         
Lipscombe, James          
McKenzie, James M.     
Meanly, John P.               
Mills, William P.                
Moseley, Benjamin        
Mosely, Robert                
Odell, John D.   
Osborne, John W.           
Parkinson, John F.          
Parkinson, Joseph W.    
Parr, John           
Parrish, John B.                
Perkins, W.G.   
Perkinson, J.F.  
Pierce, Joseph
Poe, John
Pomfrey, George M.
Pomfrey, William A.
Rabineau, William
Ratcliffe, William T.
Richardson, Colas
Richardson, John A.
Slater, John S.
Spencer, James D.
Stewart, Robert F.
Talbott, Charles H.
Talley, Richard W.
Taylor, Robert S.
Terrell, William A.
Timberlake, James P.
Turner, Edmund P. – promoted to Staff of Gen. Magruder 1861, later went with him to the Trans-Mississippi Dept.
Turner, George W.
Turner, Hezekiah
Vaiden, Galba
Vaiden, John B.
Vaiden, Micajah
Vaiden, Vulosko
Vaughan, William H.
Waddill, Littlebury G.
Walker, Harman B,
Waring, C.
Waring, T.B.
Waring, T.H.
Waring, William H.
White, W.
White, William F.
Whitlock, Robert
Wilkinson, Lee
Wilks, Christopher T.
Williams, R.L.
Willis, R.A.
Woodward, West
Wright, G.B.
Young, Henry